• The largest animal that has ever lived, blue whales can grow to 100 feet (30 meters) long, which is longer than the length of a basketball court. They can weigh as much as 200 tons (181 metric tons), about the weight of 15 school buses.

    So when a blue whale does an ordinary act that is necessary for its own survival—even just breathing or gliding through the ocean—it can be an awe-inspiring event.

    “I think it’s humbling,” says John Calambokidis, a marine mammal research biologist who studies blue whales. “Often, we are working in boats 18 feet long, and these animals we are approaching can be five times larger.”

    Calambokidis is co-founder of Cascadia Research, a nonprofit organization based in the U.S. state of Washington that studies marine mammals in an attempt to help protect them. Calambokidis has traveled all over the Pacific Ocean—from off the coast of Costa Rica, where he was funded by expedition grants from the National Geographic Society, to the Queen Charlotte Islands in British Columbia, Canada. He travels to research blue whales. Having observed about 5,000 blue whales in the wild, Calambokidis has witnessed the behaviors of the enormous creatures up close and personal.

    The scientist can easily recall the first time he heard the geyser-like explosion of air from a blue whale breathing nearby.

    “Here’s this massive animal exhaling virtually all of the air in its lungs in a fraction of a second,” he says. “It comes out with an explosive force. It literally made me jump in the boat.”

    Calambokidis says a blue whale’s call, which the animal uses to communicate with other members of its pod and possibly to sonar-navigate the oceans, is a far cry from the sounds emitted by other marine organisms.

    “The calls they make underwater are some of the loudest sounds any animal makes,” he says.

    But the low-frequency sound is normally below a human’s hearing range. Calambokidis never heard a blue whale’s call during the first decade he was studying the animal. Eventually, with the help of a hydrophone, a microphone that picks up noises underwater, he was able to hear the deep, pulsating sound.

    “Hearing that reverberate through was one of the more impressive times I’ve heard an animal call,” he says.

    Just as impressive as its call is the noticeable mark a blue whale leaves behind as it sinks into the sea. The phenomenon is called a flukeprint.

    “The flukeprint is created by the upward motion of water coming off the trailing edge of the fluke [the whale’s tail] as the animal basically begins its acceleration downward,” Calambokidis says. “So what it ends up looking like is basically an upwelling mass of water that starts as a small circle and spreads outward.”

    There is one striking aspect of a blue whale that has nothing to do with the animal’s enormous size—its appearance underwater.

    “Especially in the sunlight, when they are traveling just below the surface, they can get this almost shimmering light, an almost turquoise glow,” Calambokidis says. “They can almost seem to glow underwater.”

    While blue whales dwarf their adversaries in the sea, the large marine mammals are surprisingly timid, Calambokidis says.

    “Their response to killer whales is to flee at high speed,” he says. “People might not expect that from the largest animal that has ever lived.”

    Though a blue whale’s tongue can weigh as much as an elephant, the giant ocean creature survives almost exclusively on a diet of two-inch shrimp-like organisms called krill. During certain periods of the year, a blue whale can eat as much as 4 tons of krill in a single day. It then expels the processed food in a defecation trail, which Calambokidis describes as a brick-red cloud that colors the water.

    The world population of the docile creatures dwindled severely from 1900 to the mid-1960s, when blue whales were being hunted extensively for whale oil. Whale oil is a substance made from whale’s fat, or blubber. Whale oil can be used as a heating and lighting fluid. It is estimated that 360,000 blue whales were killed during that period. In 1966, the killing of blue whales was banned by the International Whaling Commission.

    Scientists believe there are between 10,000 and 25,000 blue whales left in the Earth’s oceans.

    Even though whale hunting no longer threatens the endangered species, Calambokidis says there are other dangers facing the blue whale today. Underwater sounds from ships and sonar might affect the animals. Many scientists worry that climate change could alter the whales’ ecosystems. One definite cause of blue whale deaths occurs when large ocean vessels inadvertently strike the marine mammals. In fall 2007, four blue whales were killed by ships off the coast of Southern California.

    With Cascadia Research, Calambokidis is trying to learn more about blue whales in an effort to ensure their population doesn’t dwindle any more.

    “They do represent one of the more magnificent animals that we have on the planet,” he says.

    Whale Tales
    Blue whales are actually a grayish color.

    Keep it Down, Down There
    The blue whale is the loudest animal on Earth. Sound is measured in decibels (db).
    70 db: Normal human conversation
    140 db: Jet engine
    150 db: Outdoor music concert
    180 db: Blue whale call
    190 db: Some hearing loss

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    accelerate Verb

    to increase speed or velocity.

    adversary Noun

    opponent or enemy.

    awe Noun

    great respect or amazement.

    biologist Noun

    scientist who studies living organisms.

    blubber Noun

    thick layer of fat under the skin of marine mammals.

    Encyclopedic Entry: blubber
    blue whale Noun

    species of marine mammal that is the largest animal to have ever lived.

    climate change Noun

    gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet.

    Encyclopedic Entry: Earth's Changing Climate
    decade Noun

    10 years.

    defecate Verb

    to expel waste matter from the body.

    docile Adjective

    gentle and easily led.

    dwarf Verb

    to make something appear small by having it appear next to something much larger.

    ecosystem Noun

    community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ecosystem
    emit Verb

    to give off or send out.

    endangered species Noun

    organism threatened with extinction.

    Encyclopedic Entry: endangered species
    enormous Adjective

    very large.

    exclusive Adjective

    limited to a few characteristics.

    exhale Verb

    to breathe out.

    expedition Noun

    journey with a specific purpose, such as exploration.

    extensive Adjective

    very large.

    fatality Noun

    a death.

    fluke Noun

    either half of the triangle-shaped end of a whale's tail.

    flukeprint Noun

    pattern of smooth water formed by a whale's tail just under the surface of the water, as it dives below.

    geyser Noun

    natural hot spring that sometimes erupts with water or steam.

    Encyclopedic Entry: geyser
    humbling Adjective

    causing a feeling of modesty or not being important.

    hydrophone Noun

    device for locating and listening to sounds underwater.

    inadvertent Adjective

    accidental or not on purpose.

    insure Verb

    to make sure.

    International Whaling Commission Noun

    group of national governments that decides the rules for whaling.

    John Calambokidis Noun

    research biologist who studies marine mammals.

    krill Noun

    small marine crustacean, similar to shrimp.

    low-frequency sound Noun

    noise that has few vibrations and is barely audible to humans.

    magnificent Adjective

    very impressive.

    marine mammal Noun

    an animal that lives most of its life in the ocean but breathes air and gives birth to live young, such as whales and seals.

    National Geographic Society Noun

    (1888) organization whose mission is "Inspiring people to care about the planet."

    navigate Verb

    to plan and direct the course of a journey.

    nonprofit organization Noun

    business that uses surplus funds to pursue its goals, not to make money.

    phenomenon Noun

    an unusual act or occurrence.

    pod Noun

    group of whales or dolphins.

    population Noun

    total number of people or organisms in a particular area.

    pulsate Verb

    to throb, or expand and contract in a uniform pattern.

    reverberate Verb

    to echo back, or reflect sound.

    sonar Noun

    method of determining the presence and location of an object using sound waves (echolocation).

    timid Adjective

    shy or fearful.

    turquoise Adjective

    greenish-blue color.

    whale oil Noun

    wax obtained from boiling the blubber of whales.