• John Yates is a security manager at the Pentagon, the heavily guarded headquarters of the United States Department of Defense in Arlington, Virginia.

    On the morning of September 11, 2001, Yates was watching a co-worker’s television as coverage of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center unfolded.

    “I was just standing there, because we were talking and watching what was going on in New York,” Yates recalls. “Then, there was just this tremendous explosion that came from behind me and from my left. I remember a ball of fire coming over my head. I remember being blown through the air. I didn’t have any idea where I was when I landed. The room was instantly black from the smoke. It was down to within a foot of the floor. Everything was instantaneously hot. The temperature in the room went from 75 degrees to 1800 degrees in just seconds.”

    Yates didn’t know it at the time, but American Airlines Flight 77, a plane hijacked by terrorists, had crashed into the Pentagon. The impact of the aircraft, along with the subsequent fire in the building, resulted in the deaths of all passengers and crewmembers on the plane and 125 people in the Pentagon.

    Yates does not recall what happened immediately after the massive blast. “I just remember that my first conscious thought was that my greatest fear in life was at hand and that I was going to die in a fire,” Yates says. “My next thought was that I would not see my bride again, because I had been married less than 16 months at this point.”

    Unaware of the burns he sustained in the explosion, Yates began crawling on the floor of the darkened Pentagon office in an attempt to find his bearings.

    “At the time, it hurt to breathe,” he says. “It hurt to try and move around, because everything I touched was hot and burned me. I can’t see. All I’m doing is looking at the floor. I’m crawling over debris, ceiling lights, melted plastic from ceiling lights, ceiling light fixtures, chairs in the way.”

    Later, Yates realized that crawling on the ground injured him. “The carpet on the floor was so hot that it burned the fingerprints off my [hands],” he says.

    Yates eventually made it to a nearby conference room, where he heard the voice of a co-worker, Army Col. Phil McNair. Then he felt someone grab his ankle. He later learned it was another co-worker, Regina Grant, who also survived the attack and ended up escaping the building.

    After that, Yates heard a voice that instructed him to head toward a specific door in the room. “Although it was a very distinctive male voice, I was never able to determine who it was,” Yates says. “So I consider it to be my guardian angel.”

    Whoever’s voice it was, it gave Yates some good advice—the door opened to a hallway less-inundated by smoke. After lying down in the hall, Yates stood up and started walking, where he was spotted by Army Lt. Col. Victor Correa and Army Col. Karl Knoblauch. Correa helped him out of the building and into a courtyard.

    Though Yates is able to remember walking to a stretcher and being put in an ambulance, he didn’t realize what caused the explosion in the Pentagon until later.

    “I had no idea of what had happened,” he says. “No idea that a 757 going 500-plus miles an hour had slammed into the outside of the building.”

    When Yates came to, he was in the burn unit of the Washington Hospital Center in Washington, D.C. He was told he had a very important visitor.

    “My next conscious memory is my wife waking me up asking if I wanted to meet President Bush,” he says. “I thought it was still September 11, but it was September 13.”

    For the next two and a half months, Yates recovered in the hospital. Like other survivors, he credits the Pentagon renovation project as one reason he is alive today. The renovation specifically is aimed at making the Pentagon less vulnerable to terrorist attacks. Begun in the 1990s, the massive project continues today.

    “I think that if it had been a regular limestone exterior and concrete . . . I don’t think I’d be here today, because it [the hijacked plane] would have gone so much farther into the building,” Yates says.

    Col. Vincent Kam

    Army Col. Vincent Kam, who was also working in the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, says the renovations probably saved his life, too. Kam was conducting a meeting when Flight 77 crashed into the building.

    “I was actually standing right behind the window when that occurred,” he says. “That’s the reason I saw the fireball come at me, but the window held in place. It was intact, did not shatter. I was protected even though my eardrum was hurt.”

    Kam, who suffered from smoke inhalation after the attack, was actually standing right over the area of impact.  “The plane basically came in through the first floor of the Pentagon, and I was on the third floor . . . directly above the path of penetration,” he says.

    Pentagon Memorial

    The Pentagon Memorial commemorates and honors those who died in the attack. The memorial, near the area that was struck on September 11, was completed in August 2008. It includes 184 memorial units, each dedicated to a victim of the attack.

    Yates plans to attend a private remembrance ceremony at the memorial on September 11, 2011, the 10th anniversary of the attack. After the ceremony, he has other plans.

    “Because of my hospitalization, I was only able to attend one burial,” Yates says. “I’ve never been able to go back over there [to Arlington National Cemetery], so I’m going to do it that day. On this September 11, I will go over to Arlington Cemetery and visit my friends, visit their gravesites.”

    Survivors’ Stories
    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attack at the Pentagon resulted in the deaths of 184 innocent victims, and five hijackers.

    Building Blocks
    Col. Vincent Kam, who has a background in engineering, describes the layout of the Pentagon.
    Its a building that consists of five floors and the basement, and it has got five wings, he says. It has five sides, and that is why it is called the Pentagon. There are five rings starting from the innermost ring that we call the A Ring all the way to the outermost ring we call the E Ring.

    Big Building
    The Pentagon is one of the world's largest office buildings. It has 691 water fountains and 284 restrooms for its approximately 23,000 employees, who are both civilians and military personnel.

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    acknowledge Verb

    to recognize the truth or existence of something.

    advice Noun

    recommendation or opinion.

    aircraft Noun

    vehicle able to travel and operate above the ground.

    bearing Noun

    relevance or reference.

    ceremony Noun

    activities to celebrate or commemorate an event.

    commemorate Verb

    to honor an event on a specific date.

    concrete Noun

    hard building material made from mixing cement with rock and water.

    conference room Noun

    large office room used for meetings with many people.

    conscious Adjective

    aware of.

    courtyard Noun

    open area in the center of a building or set of buildings.

    debris Noun

    remains of something broken or destroyed; waste, or garbage.

    Department of Defense Noun

    department of the U.S. government whose mission is "providing the military forces needed to deter war and protect the security of our country."

    determine Verb

    to decide.

    distinct Adjective

    unique or identifiable.

    eardrum Noun

    thin layer (membrane) between the outer ear and the middle ear. Also called the tympanic membrane.

    grave Noun

    specific place where a body is buried.

    guardian angel Noun

    supernatural being believed to guide and protect a specific person or group.

    headquarters Noun

    place where an organization or project is chiefly located.

    hijack Verb

    to steal a transportation vessel, such as a truck or plane, or the cargo it is carrying.

    instantaneously Adverb

    happening very quickly, in an instant.

    intact Adjective

    whole or complete.

    inundate Verb

    to overwhelm.

    limestone Noun

    type of sedimentary rock mostly made of calcium carbonate from shells and skeletons of marine organisms.

    penetrate Verb

    to push through.

    Pentagon Noun

    (Arlington, Virginia) huge office building that is the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense.

    perish Verb

    to die or be destroyed.

    renovate Verb

    to restore or make better.

    smoke Noun

    gases given off by a burning substance.

    smoke inhalation Noun

    injury and illness caused by breathing the hot gases produced during a fire.

    specific Adjective

    exact or precise.

    subsequent Adjective

    coming after.

    sustain Verb

    to support.

    temperature Noun

    degree of hotness or coldness measured by a thermometer with a numerical scale.

    Encyclopedic Entry: temperature
    terrorist Adjective

    having to do with the use of non-military violence and/or threats of violence to achieve or advocate political change.

    tremendous Adjective

    very large or important.

    vulnerable Adjective

    capable of being hurt.

    World Trade Center Noun

    office building complex in lower Manhattan, New York, dominated by the Twin Towers until terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, destroyed them.