• Deep-Sea Submersible Pilot Erika Bergman
    Erika Bergman is a 2013 National Geographic Young Explorer and a submarine pilot.
    The Gardens of the Queen
    Erika’s most recent expedition brought her to the Gardens of the Queen—home to one of the world’s most vibrant coral reefs—off the coast of Cuba. Christopher Columbus named the area in honor of Queen Isabella of Spain. The Gardens are located in what is now a 2,715-square kilometer (840-square-mile) marine preserve, the largest in Cuba.
    Deep-Sea Skylines
    "You talk about Atlantis: It’s down there. You see rock walls and cliff faces like skyscrapers and cities bursting with life. But you don’t know about that until you can lay eyes on it. That’s why I want to take people down with me."
    —Erika Bergman, submersible pilot
    2013 National Geographic Young Explorer Erika Bergman is a submarine pilot and a lover of all things aquatic. Her work takes her across the globe to improve our understanding of ocean ecosystems. 
    After tinkering with farm equipment while growing up, studying chemical oceanography in college, and working on a historic steamship in the Puget Sound region of the northwestern United States, Erika has managed to weave her various interests into one profession. Her current work with submarines combines three of the things she loves the most: the ocean, mechanics, and community outreach.
    “I’m in my happy place right now because I’m right at this junction where I’m doing really technical work—very hands-on, submarine technician work where I’m building and fabricating stuff—and combining that with education outreach and this whole storytelling side of things.”
    Despite what may seem like a clear path, Erika stumbled on her interest in submarines by “being in the right place at the right time.” During her time at the University of Washington, she was lucky enough to be in the lab when the owners of the submarine Antipodes came through for a show-and-tell.
    Despite being a seasoned diver and submarine pilot, exploring what lies below the ocean’s surface will never get old for Erika. 
    “Every single dive—it doesn’t matter if you’ve been to the spot 100 times—is completely different. There are so many things that we don’t know about the ocean. Every single time you dive you see something new and exciting.
    “It makes really abstract concepts—like an ocean current—into something really tangible that you can feel and be a part of. It’s not just using you eyes, it’s using all of your senses.”
    Safety is priority number one for submarine pilots, who have to be extremely precise to navigate the vessel and keep it in pristine mechanical condition. 
    “Diving in submarines is really high-intensity and high-stakes. Like I said, no dive is ever the same: You’re always facing different currents, situations, and environments, and you have to use all of your brain all the time to always be making the best decisions.”
    To ensure the safety of those on board, the submarine crew has to be a “perfectly oiled machine.” Typically, there are three to five people in the crew of a manned submarine, each with a different specialty to contribute.
    “When I think about geography, I picture three-dimensional natural boundaries. For me, geography is up, down, side-to-side. I remember being taught geography in school and it was very static and two-dimensional. I memorized every single country in the world and wrote it down on a map, 30 minutes later forgot it all, and half of those countries are different now. When they’re teaching it to you, they say, ‘Here’s the line, it doesn’t move, and it’s two-dimensional,’ but I realized that two dimensions don’t cut it.”
    Erika’s experience diving in the Gulf Stream helped her recognize the intricate connections her work has to geography. While the Gulf Stream is typically portrayed on maps as an “ocean conveyor belt,” Erika says it’s really “more like a roller coaster,” going up and down from the ocean surface to the seafloor. 
    “The first time I dove [in] the Gulf Stream and I looked round, I was just surrounded by this massive wall. I like to describe it as a mural being painted in Caribbean camouflage. All these water bodies were mixing right on the boundary layer and the water was undulating so that it looked like heat coming off of a hot tarmac—it had that mirage effect. I realized that there was a really dynamic geographic boundary that’s three-dimensional and beautiful.”
    Navigational tools on the submarine use geospatial technologies like the global positioning system (GPS). In combination with acoustic tracking and sonar, these systems allow the crew to pilot the submarine to small targets on the ocean floor.
    Understanding how submarines work means being familiar with a wide variety of technologies. 
    “Be open to learning new things. You need a basic grasp of electronics, hydraulics, and pneumatics, but you don’t have to be an expert in any one of them. Just be willing to learn something new and get very hands on.”
    Tinkering with everyday objects can also be a great way to get started with the basics. 
    “Don’t be afraid to take something apart, see how it works, and try and put it back together.”
    Erika is hoping to make citizen science an even bigger part of her upcoming expeditions by incorporating video chats and Google Hangouts that will allow students to ask questions of the crew. While current technologies don’t allow manned submersibles to communicate with the people above the surface the same way a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) would, Erika is optimistic the technology will soon be available. Already she has reached out to classrooms and invited students to come up with research questions, making her “team of people that much bigger.”
    In the meantime, there are plenty of opportunities for citizen science and learning about mechanics. Erika highlights MATE (Marine Advanced Technology Education) ROV competitions, which allow students as young as third-graders to build underwater robots and compete with them for prizes.
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    abstract Adjective

    theoretical, or distinct from a physical object or actual instances.

    acoustic Adjective

    having to do with sound or hearing.

    aquatic Adjective

    having to do with water.

    boundary Noun

    line separating geographical areas.

    Encyclopedic Entry: boundary
    camouflage Noun

    tactic that organisms use to disguise their appearance, usually to blend in with their surroundings.

    Encyclopedic Entry: camouflage
    chemical oceanography Noun

    study of the chemical reactions in the Earth's oceans, and how they interact with living and non-living materials and the atmosphere.

    citizen science Noun

    science project or program where volunteers who are not scientists conduct surveys, take measurements, or record observations.

    Encyclopedic Entry: citizen science
    concept Noun


    current Noun

    steady, predictable flow of fluid within a larger body of that fluid.

    Encyclopedic Entry: current
    dynamic Adjective

    always changing or in motion.

    ecosystem Noun

    community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ecosystem
    electronics Noun

    study of the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons.

    environment Noun

    conditions that surround and influence an organism or community.

    equipment Noun

    tools and materials to perform a task or function.

    expedition Noun

    journey with a specific purpose, such as exploration.

    fabricate Verb

    to make or construct.

    geography Noun

    study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.

    Encyclopedic Entry: geography
    geospatial technologies Noun

    computer hardware and software which allows users to evaluate geographic data.

    Global Positioning System (GPS) Noun

    system of satellites and receiving devices used to determine the location of something on Earth.

    hydraulic adjective, noun

    having to do with water or other liquids in motion.

    intricate Adjective

    very detailed and complex.

    navigate Verb

    to plan and direct the course of a journey.

    ocean conveyor belt Noun

    system in which water moves between the cold depths and warm surface in oceans throughout the world. Also called thermohaline circulation.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ocean conveyor belt
    pneumatics Noun

    study of the uses and properties of air and other gases.

    precise Adjective


    priority Noun

    something having more importance than others.

    pristine Adjective

    pure or unpolluted.

    recognize Verb

    to identify or acknowledge.

    robot Noun

    machine that can be programmed to perform automatic, mechanical tasks.

    ROV Noun

    remotely operated vehicle.

    sonar Noun

    method of determining the presence and location of an object using sound waves (echolocation).

    submarine Noun

    vehicle that can travel underwater.

    tangible Adjective

    able to be touched or felt.

    tarmac Noun

    runway, parking lot, or other surface paved with tar.

    three-dimensional Adjective

    having the appearance of width, height, and depth.

    tinker Verb

    to meddle with, or try to improve or fix something.

    undulate Verb

    to move in a smooth, wave-like manner.

    vessel Noun

    craft for traveling on water, usually larger than a rowboat or skiff.

    Young Explorer Noun

    National Geographic grant recipient between the ages 18 to 25, recognized for pursuing "research, conservation, and exploration-related projects consistent with National Geographic's existing grant programs."