On December 7, 1941, the sky over Pearl Harbor, on the Hawaiian island of Oahu, darkened with a wave of attacking Japanese aircraft. The attack on Pearl Harbor resulted in the loss of 2,341 members of the U.S. military and American entry into World War II.

Relations between the United States and Japan had been deteriorating long before the attack, says Daniel Martinez, chief historian at the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument in Honolulu, Hawaii. As tensions between the two nations escalated, the United States made Pearl Harbor the homeport of the Pacific Fleet, a group of U.S. Navy vessels in the Pacific Ocean. Hawaii was not a state at the time, and the fleet had only moved from California a year earlier.

“The Japanese strategy for the attack was pretty straightforward,” Martinez says. “It was to immobilize the Pacific Fleet and to take the Pacific Fleet out of action from at least six months to a year. The idea of a surprise attack was key to their success.”

Surprise Attack

American military personnel were involved in typical early-morning duties when the attack began, Martinez says. “[They] are getting ready for morning colors, church services, day-to-day duties, preparing to raise our flag,” the historian says. “On the battleship Nevada, they are playing ‘The Star-Spangled Banner’ as the torpedo planes are gliding in.”

Torpedo planes are bombers designed to attack ships, and they were only part of the massive air assault deployed by the Imperial Japanese Navy at Pearl Harbor. The assault, involving more than 350 planes, came in two major “waves.” In the first wave, torpedo planes targeted the docked Pacific Fleet. The air torpedoes used by these planes were equipped with rudders, which allowed them to operate in shallow water—such as a harbor.

The second wave was composed of dive-bombers and “Zeroes,” perhaps the best fighter aircraft used in WWII. Zeroes had an enormous range, able to fly more than 2,500 kilometers (1,560 miles) from their aircraft carrier. They were also agile, able to engage in steep climbs and drops.

The Japanese assault devastated the Pacific Fleet. Most of the fleet was aligned in “Battleship Row,” a series of docks holding the battleships West Virginia (with a crew of 2,300), California (2,200), Tennessee (2,200), Maryland (2,100), Oklahoma (1,300), Nevada (1,500), and Arizona (1,500), and the repair ship Vestal (466).

“The group of planes that flew over about 8:06 a.m. dropped the fatal bomb that went into the U.S.S. Arizona’s forward magazine and ignited over a million pounds of explosives,” Martinez says. “The ship literally erupted in a ball of flame and lifted out of the water, but effectively the Arizona’s life was extinguished. One thousand, one hundred seventy-seven officers, sailors and Marines were killed. It was the greatest loss of life of any warship in American naval history.”

Along with the U.S.S. Arizona, 11 other U.S. ships were sunk or beached during the Japanese offensive, including the U.S.S. Oklahoma, where 429 men were killed. The Arizona was a complete loss, and the carcass of the ship is an underwater memorial in Pearl Harbor. Other sunken ships, such as the U.S.S. California, were raised and repaired. In all, more than 20 ships were damaged in the attack.

Neighboring military facilities on Oahu were also hit by the Japanese air strike, including Marine Corps Air Station Ewa, Marine Corps Air Station Kaneohe Bay, and Wheeler Field and Hickam Field, operated by the Army Air Corps. These targets held planes and airstrips, so the attack delayed the ability of the United States to respond. The U.S. lost more than 160 planes, with almost as many damaged.

Eventually, American anti-aircraft guns and a few Army Air Corps pilots began to attack Japanese aircraft. By the time the Japanese left the area about 1 p.m., they had lost 29 planes.

The Japanese attack was not limited to aircraft. According to the U.S. Navy, the assault included aircraft carriers, cruisers, oilers, battleships, and destroyers.

The assault also included the use of submarines. The evening before the aerial assault, nearby Japanese submarines launched five midget submarines in the waters around Oahu. These midget subs were about 24 meters (80 feet) long, and held only one or two crewmembers. The personnel on these submarines were instructed to enter the harbor in the morning and do as much damage as possible.

One midget sub may have torpedoed the U.S.S. West Virginia, part of Battleship Row. The U.S.S. Ward, using depth charges and gunfire, sank a midget sub before the first wave of Japanese aircraft arrived.

Consequences of the Attack

Martinez notes that the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was carefully planned and, ultimately, very effective. “The Japanese in their attack had moved within 230 miles (370 kilometers) north of Oahu,” he says. “They had brought six [aircraft] carriers. This was unprecedented in history. This was the first time that a naval force would use that amount of planes, 350 aircraft. It was a total surgical strike to knock out our airfields, which they did within 15 minutes, and then knock out the Pacific Fleet, which they did within 20 minutes.”

But, while the attack was successful, it also had the effect of uniting the U.S. behind a war against Japan. “If you remove the emotion and look at it, the Japanese had achieved a great victory and success,” Martinez says. “But it was also the biggest public relations (PR) disaster any nation had done in the 20th century. In achieving that, they certainly outraged a nation and ensured their defeat.”

The day after the attack, in Washington, D.C., U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt addressed Congress and memorably referred to December 7, 1941, as “a date which will live in infamy.” Then he asked Congress to declare war against Japan. Three days later, Japan’s allies, Germany and Italy, declared war on the U.S., which signaled America’s entrance into World War II.

Commemorating the Attack

Martinez says that 70 years later, Pearl Harbor and its aftermath should be viewed as a turning point for the U.S. Although Hawaii did not become a state until 1959, the American military retained a strong presence on the islands. Pearl Harbor Naval Base is still the homeport and headquarters of the Navy’s enormous Pacific Fleet.

The consequences of Pearl Harbor resonate outside the United States as well. “It had such a resounding effect on reshaping the world and the United States,” he says. “The United States, who had been a minimal power prior to the war, became a superpower with the atomic bomb.”

The National Park Service, which manages the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument, will commemorate the 70th anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor by welcoming World War II veterans. The organization will also hold a symposium that looks back on December 7, 1941, and the Pacific theater of WWII.

“We will have our visitors pause, reflect, and honor the past at the ceremony,” Martinez says.

Martinez believes the events of December 7, 1941, are still relevant today. “I think Pearl Harbor has enshrined itself,” he says, “into one of those moments that is iconic to American history and world history.”

Date Which Will Live in Infamy
The sinking of the Arizona, the greatest naval loss in American history, is symbolic of the attack at Pearl Harbor.

Tears of the Arizona
When the U.S.S. Arizona sank, it contained 5.3 million liters (1.4 million gallons) of oil. Droplets of oil from the battleship still rise to the surface of Pearl Harbor every day. Pearl Harbor survivors have called the ascending oil droplets Black Tears or Tears of the Arizona.

Kamikaze
The Japanese did not use their famous kamikaze suicide bombers in the attack at Pearl Harbor. Air Station Kaneohe Bay was hit with a suicide attack, but the pilot chose to crash only when his plane was badly damaged and leaking fuel.

agile
Adjective

active and quick to respond.

aircraft
Noun

vehicle able to travel and operate above the ground.

aircraft carrier
Noun

large ship with runways for aircraft to take off and land.

air strike
Noun

bombing of a site by aircraft.

airstrip
Noun

small landing field with one or two runways on which aircraft can take off and land.

air torpedo
Noun

bomb designed to be dropped from an aircraft into water.

align
Verb

to put in a straight line.

anti-aircraft
Adjective

weapons, tools, and machinery having to do with defense against bombers and other enemy aircraft.

Army Air Corps
Noun

(1926-1942) U.S. Army branch specializing in the development and operation of aircraft. In 1947, this group became an entirely new branch of the military, the U.S. Air Force.

assault
Noun

violent attack.

atomic bomb
Noun

explosive device that draws energy from the interaction of atomic nuclei. Also called an atom bomb, a-bomb, or nuclear bomb.

Battleship Row
Noun

(1941) series of docks at Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, holding warships at the time of the Japanese attack.

beach
Verb

to force a ship or boat onto a beach.

bomber
Noun

airplane equipped to carry and drop bombs.

bungalow
Noun

style of one-story house surrounded by a veranda or porch, common on the West Coast of the United States.

carcass
Noun

framework of a decaying structure.

Chief Petty Officer
Noun

enlisted rank in the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Coast Guard, between Petty Officer First Class and Senior Chief Petty Officer.

commemorate
Verb

to honor an event on a specific date.

Congress
Noun

legislative branch of the government, responsible for making laws. The U.S. Congress has two bodies, the House of Representatives and the Senate.

consequence
Noun

result or outcome of an action or situation.

cruiser
Noun

large, powerful warship equipped with a large variety of weapons.

delay
Verb

to put off until a later time.

depth charge
Noun

explosive device designed to be dropped from a ship or aircraft and to explode underwater.

destroyer
Noun

powerful, medium-sized warship designed to accompany and protect larger vessels.

deteriorate
V

to wear away or become lower in quality.

devastate
Verb

to destroy.

disaster
Noun

terrible and damaging event.

dock
Verb

to bring and secure a ship or boat to a space or facility.

enormous
Adjective

very large.

enshrine
Verb

to honor and respect as sacred or holy.

ensure
Verb

to guarantee.

equip
Verb

to prepare or provide the right equipment.

escalate
Verb

to increase.

extinguish
Verb

to put out a fire or flame.

fatal
Adjective

causing death.

fleet
Noun

group of ships, usually organized for military purposes.

Franklin Roosevelt
Noun

(1882-1945) 32nd president of the United States.

Noun

part of a body of water deep enough for ships to dock.

headquarters
Noun

place where an organization or project is chiefly located.

historian
Noun

person who studies events and ideas of the past.

homeport
Noun

port where a ship is registered or has its base of operations.

iconic
Adjective

event or symbol representing a belief, nation, or community.

ignite
Verb

to set on fire.

immobilize
Verb

to prevent any movement or activity.

imperial
Adjective

having to do with an empire.

infamy
Noun

very bad reputation.

Noun

body of land surrounded by water.

magazine
Noun

storage site for artillery and firearms.

Marines
Plural Noun

(U.S. Marine Corps) branch of the U.S. military often responsible for first expeditions to danger zones.

massive
Adjective

very large or heavy.

midget submarine
Noun

small submarine, usually with a crew of one or two.

military
Noun

armed forces.

minimal
Adjective

the lowest or least.

mooring quay
Noun

place where ships or boats are secured with cables and anchors to a permanent structure.

Noun

political unit made of people who share a common territory.

national monument
Noun

federal land set aside to protect objects of scientific and historical interest.

National Park Service
Noun

U.S. federal agency with the mission of caring "for special places saved by the American people so that all may experience our heritage."

oiler
Noun

naval ship with auxiliary fuel tanks and cargo, used for refueling when ships are at sea. Also called a fuel tanker.

Pacific Fleet
Noun

(USPACFLT) U.S. Navy command headquartered at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

Pacific theater
Noun

military operations taking place in the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific theater usually refers to actions during World War II.

public relations (PR)
Noun

the art, science, and business of promoting an organization, person, or event.

relevant
Adjective

directly having to do with something or someone.

resonate
Noun

to evoke memories or emotions.

resounding
Adjective

thorough or complete.

rudder
Noun

blade at the rear of a vehicle which can be turned to change the vehicle's direction.

sailor
Noun

person who works aboard a ship.

state
Noun

political unit in a nation, such as the United States, Mexico, or Australia.

strategy
Noun

plan or method of achieving a goal.

submarine
Noun

vehicle that can travel underwater.

superpower
Noun

extremely powerful nation or country.

surgical strike
Noun

assault with a specific military target.

symposium
Noun

large meeting or conference on a specific subject.

tension
Noun

uncomfortable relationship between two people or groups.

unprecedented
Adjective

never before known or experienced.

USS
Noun

United States Ship.

veteran
Noun

person who has served their country in a military capacity.

war
Noun

large-scale armed conflict.

World War II
Noun

(1939-1945) armed conflict between the Allies (represented by the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union) and the Axis (represented by Germany, Italy, and Japan.)

Zero
Noun

(Mitsubishi A6M Zero, 1940-1945) Japanese fighter aircraft used during World War II.