Audience:On January 10, 49 BCE, General Julius Caesar entered Roman territory by crossing the Rubicon, a stream in what is now Northern Italy. In crossing the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war that signaled the end of the Roman Republic.Julius Caesar was a very popular military and political leader who expanded the borders of the Roman Republic through what are today France, Spain, and the island of Great Britain. Caesar’s popularity and independence created tension between him and other elected officials in Rome.The Rubicon was a shallow river that served as a boundary between Rome and its provinces. Caesar crossed from a part of Gaul, where he was serving as governor. It was against the law to cross into Roman territory with an army, and Caesar knew this—he knew he was starting a civil war. He may have quoted one of his favorite plays when crossing the stream—Alea iacta est, the die is cast. (Romans were familiar with throwing (casting) dice as a game of chance.)
Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry adopt Verb
to formally raise and care for a child of other biological parents.
natural or artificial line separating two pieces of land.
Encyclopedic Entry: border boundary Noun
line separating geographical areas.
Encyclopedic Entry: boundary cast Verb
to throw or toss.
civil war Noun
conflict between groups in the same country or nation.
dice Plural Noun
small cubes marked with numbers or other symbols on each side, tossed and used in games of chance.
person with complete control of a government.
to break up or disintegrate.
to develop or come into view.
ruler of an empire.
to grow or get larger.
Western European civilization that became a major part of ancient Rome.
having to do with public policy, government, administration, or elected office.
division of a country larger than a town or county.
Encyclopedic Entry: province republic Noun
system of government where power rests in citizens who vote and representatives who stand for those citizens. The United States is a republic.
Roman Empire Noun
(27 BCE-476 CE) period in the history of ancient Rome when the state was ruled by an emperor.
to communicate using signs.
body of flowing fluid.
uncomfortable relationship between two people or groups.
land an animal, human, or government protects from intruders.