On the eve of the American Revolution, Maryland was a prosperous mid-Atlantic colony. Its population of about 150,000 had replaced all but a few hundred Native Americans. Tens of thousands were enslaved Africans, most of whom worked planting and harvesting tobacco grown on the Eastern and Western Shores of Chesapeake Bay. The colony's rich iron deposits also spurred economic growth in the mid-1700s.

Map by National Geographic Society

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