• South America, the fourth-largest continent, extends from the Gulf of Darién in the northwest to the Tierra del Fuego archipelago in the south.

    South America’s physical geography, environment and resources, and human geography can be considered separately.

    South America has diverse agricultural products, vast mineral wealth, and plentiful freshwater. It also has rich fisheries and ports on three bodies of water: the Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The continent’s economy is centered on the export of natural resources.

    Climate and Agriculture

    South America extends from a broad equatorial zone in the north to a narrow sub-Arctic zone in the south. It can be divided into four climatic regions: tropical, temperate, arid, and cold.

    Tropical climates—which include both tropical rainy and tropical wet and dry climates—cover more than half of the continent. Tropical rainy conditions occur in the Amazon River basin, the northeastern coast, and the Pacific coast of Colombia. The regions’ average daily temperature is 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit) with very little temperature variation throughout the year. While average annual rainfall is 262 centimeters (103 inches), some areas receive an extreme amount of precipitation; the Chocó region of Colombia, for example, receives more than 800 centimeters (315 inches) of rain every year.

    Tropical wet and dry conditions occur in the Orinoco River basin, the Brazilian Highlands, and in a western section of Ecuador. Temperatures are similar to tropical rainy, but have a greater daily range. There is also less precipitation and a prolonged dry season.

    Many crops thrive in the tropical climates of South America. Cashews and Brazil nuts are cultivated. Fruits such as avocado, pineapple, papaya, and guava are also native to tropical South America.

    Two very important cash crops are coffee and cacao, which is the source of cocoa, the base ingredient in chocolate. Brazil is the world’s largest exporter of coffee, and it used to be one of the largest exporters of cacao. In 2000, a fungus spread throughout many of South America’s cacao plantations, devastating the economies of the region and driving up the price of chocolate. The chocolate industries of Brazil, Venezuela, and Ecuador are slowly recovering, but most of the world’s cacao now comes from countries in tropical Africa.

    The continent’s temperate climates are located south of the Tropic of Capricorn and in the mid-level elevations of the Andes mountains. Temperate climates have a greater temperature range and lower winter temperatures than tropical climates.

    South America’s temperate climates are home to a number of industrial crops and livestock. Corn is produced throughout the temperate climates, and soybeans have become an increasingly lucrative crop in the Pampas.

    The Pampas’ vast, high-quality pastures are also the center of South America’s huge ranching industry. Brazil is the world’s third-largest beef exporter (behind only Australia and the United States). Argentina is also an important beef exporter.

    Arid climates are found in deserts, coastal areas, and interior regions throughout South America. Some of these climates are extremely cold, while others are extremely hot—but they all receive very little precipitation. This makes agricultural production difficult. However, heavily irrigated crops, such as rice and cotton, are grown in desert oases.

    Cold climates occur in the southern ends of Argentina and Chile and the highest elevations of the Andes. Cold climates have an average annual temperature of below 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). These climates are characterized by long dry seasons and high winds.

    While these cold climates limit crop production, they are also home to thousands of native potato species and the native quinoa plant—a grain-like crop grown for its edible seeds. Potatoes and quinoa are starchy food staples of the Andean diet. Potatoes are now one of the biggest crops in the world. Ninety-nine percent of the potatoes grown throughout the world can be traced to a single species that was originally cultivated in the Chiloé Archipelago more than 10,000 years ago.

    In addition to potatoes and quinoa, grazing animals such as sheep, llamas, alpacas, and vicuñas also thrive in cold climates. These animals are bred for their meat and wool, which is used in high-quality textiles exported throughout the world.

    Forestry and Fishing

    Forestry is the management of trees and other vegetation in forests. It is a major economic activity for tropical South America, especially the Amazon River basin. Many high-value tree species, such as mahogany and rosewood, are native to the rain forest. Lumber from these trees is exported to foreign markets for use in cabinets and floors. Some countries have tree plantations. Chile, for example, is an important exporter of wood chips, plywood, and paper pulp.

    Lower-grade woods are important to the construction market in South America. The most familiar of these less-expensive woods is eucalyptus. Eucalyptus is not native to South America, but it grows at an incredibly quick rate. Eucalyptus is used as both a building material and as fuel in low-income communities throughout South America.

    Marine fisheries are the most important economic activity along South America’s Pacific coast, although overfishing has depleted many fish populations. The cold Peru Current brings nutrient-rich waters to the coast, creating a fishery with everything from whales to shrimp. Peru and Chile’s abundant anchovy catches are processed into fishmeal, an ingredient used in animal feed and fertilizer. Chile is a global leader in farm-raised salmon and trout, while Ecuador is an important shrimp exporter.

    Mining and Drilling

    The mining industry is one of South America’s most important economic engines. The continent contains about one-fifth of the world’s iron ore reserves. Iron and steel (an iron product) are used in construction and machinery throughout the world.

    More than one-quarter of the world’s known copper reserves are in South America, mostly in Peru and Chile. Valued at $26.9 billion in 2009, copper accounts for nearly one-third of the exports of Chile, the world’s largest copper exporter. Copper is used in electrical wiring and equipment because it is a good conductor of heat and is resistant to corrosion.

    Other important metal deposits include tin, used to solder metallic surfaces; lead, used in construction, batteries, and bullets; and zinc, used as an anti-corrosion agent. Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia are major producers of tin. Lead and zinc deposits are found primarily in higher elevations of Peru, Bolivia, southern Brazil, and northern Argentina.

    South America is home to some deposits of oil and natural gas, which are drilled for energy and fuel. Oil and gas extraction is the dominant industry of Venezuela, with major deposits found around Lake Maracaibo and the El Tigre region. The oil sector accounts for about one-third of Venezuela’s total gross domestic product (GDP).

    The Built Environment

    South America’s economic growth over the last half-century has prompted its cities to expand rapidly. These cities, however, often suffer from inefficient transportation and utility systems, pollution, and unregulated residential growth.

    São Paulo, Brazil, is an industrial powerhouse and the largest city in the Southern Hemisphere, with a population of more than 11 million. The city lies at the center of the São Paulo metropolitan area (SPMA), which has an estimated 19,889,559 residents and covers more than 7,743 square kilometers (3,067 square miles). The SPMA is defined as a “megalopolis” because it covers a vast area and incorporates several distinct cities.

    São Paulo’s growth mostly comes from the coffee boom that hit the city in the 1880s. Immigrants from Europe and Japan came to the city to work in the coffee trade. Today, São Paulo produces about half of Brazil’s industrial goods and is the center of South American manufacturing.

    São Paulo’s economic opportunities have attracted many poor migrants. This flood of immigration has spurred the creation of massive shantytowns, called favelas. In São Paulo, there are more than 600 favelas. Favelas are often removed from the city center and disconnected from basic city services, such as water, sewage, and electricity.

    The drug trade, mostly cocaine, is also centered in favelas. Drug trafficking has become a major economic industry in South America, providing hundreds of millions of dollars to drug organizations, known as cartels. The farmers who produce raw materials for the drug trade rarely benefit as much as the cartels that deliver the drugs to an international market. Drug cartels have become a serious security threat to South American governments, especially in Colombia and Brazil.

    Lima, Peru, is the second largest desert city in the world, after Cairo, Egypt. The Lima metropolitan area has a population of almost 9 million people and accounts for about one-fourth of Peru’s total population. Lima is known as the Gastronomical Capital of the Americas for the number and diversity of local dishes. These dishes bring together the city’s roots as a Spanish colonial center and the influences of both international immigrants (African, Chinese, Japanese) and local migrants (Andean, Amazonian).

    Lima has the largest export industry in South America. Lima and the nearby port city of Callao are also among the most important fish trade centers in South America. Lima and Callao have regular, efficient maritime routes to coastal Asia.

    Much like São Paulo, Lima’s large size causes certain infrastructure problems. Heavy traffic congestion is an effect of Lima’s indirect street and highway network, and unreliable public buses. These older buses are often much smaller and more polluting than new buses. In order to reduce traffic and pollution, Lima is in the process of constructing an above-ground subway-type system.

    South America is home to a number of engineering marvels, most of which are connected to managing the continent’s natural resources. The Itaipu Dam, completed in 1984, spans the Paraná River at the Brazil-Paraguay border. The dam generates more hydroelectric power than any other dam in the world. (China's Three Gorges Dam is capable of producing more, however.) In 2008, the dam generated 94.68 billion kilowatt-hours, which supplied 90 percent of Paraguay’s energy and 19 percent of Brazil’s. In 1994, the American Society of Civil Engineers elected the Itaipu Dam as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World.

    South America has some of the largest mining operations in the world. The Chuquicamata mine in northern Chile is considered the world’s largest open-pit copper mine. It is 4.3 kilometers (2.7 miles) long, 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) wide and more than 847 meters (2,780 feet) deep. The mine produces more than one-fourth of Chile’s copper. Its smelter (which extracts the copper from rock ore) and refinery (which purifies the extracted copper) are also among the largest in the world.

    South America: Resources

    South America's economy is centered on the export of natural resources.

    Largest Urban Area
    Sao Paulo, Brazil (20.4 million people)

    Highest Elevation
    Aconcagua, Argentina (6,901 meters/22,641 feet)

    Largest Watershed
    Amazon River (7 million square kilometers/2.72 million square miles)

    Population Density
    57 people per square kilometer

    Most Renewable Electricity Produced
    Paraguay (99.9%, hydropower)
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    Arctic Noun

    region at Earth's extreme north, encompassed by the Arctic Circle.

    Encyclopedic Entry: Arctic
    arid Adjective


    beef Noun

    flesh of a cow used for food.

    cartel Noun

    group formed to regulate prices and production of a specific good or service, or a specific geographic area.

    city Noun

    large settlement with a high population density.

    climate Noun

    all weather conditions for a given location over a period of time.

    Encyclopedic Entry: climate
    coast Noun

    edge of land along the sea or other large body of water.

    Encyclopedic Entry: coast
    cocaine Noun

    stimulant drug made from the dried leaves of the cacao plant.

    congestion Noun


    construction Noun

    arrangement of different parts.

    continent Noun

    one of the seven main land masses on Earth.

    Encyclopedic Entry: continent
    copper Noun

    chemical element with the symbol Cu.

    corrosion Noun

    process of chemicals breaking down or wearing away a material.

    crop Noun

    agricultural produce.

    Encyclopedic Entry: crop
    cultivate Verb

    to prepare and nurture the land for crops.

    current Noun

    steady, predictable flow of fluid within a larger body of that fluid.

    Encyclopedic Entry: current
    dam Noun

    structure built across a river or other waterway to control the flow of water.

    deplete Verb

    to use up.

    desert Noun

    area of land that receives no more than 25 centimeters (10 inches) of precipitation a year.

    Encyclopedic Entry: desert
    diet Noun

    foods eaten by a specific group of people or other organisms.

    Encyclopedic Entry: diet
    drug trafficking Noun

    buying, selling and transporting of illegal drugs.

    dry season Noun

    time of year with little precipitation.

    economy Noun

    system of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

    electricity Noun

    set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.

    engineering Noun

    the art and science of building, maintaining, moving, and demolishing structures.

    environment Noun

    conditions that surround and influence an organism or community.

    equatorial Adjective

    having to do with the equator or the area around the equator.

    export Verb

    to transport goods to another place for trade.

    favela Noun

    low-income urban area with poorly constructed dwellings found in South America, especially Brazil.

    fertilizer Noun

    nutrient-rich chemical substance (natural or manmade) applied to soil to encourage plant growth.

    fishery Noun

    industry or occupation of harvesting fish, either in the wild or through aquaculture.

    fishmeal Noun

    dried fish ground for use as animal feed or fertilizer.

    food staple Noun

    food that is eaten frequently, either fresh or stored for use all year.

    Encyclopedic Entry: food staple
    forestry Noun

    management, cultivation, and harvesting of trees and other vegetation in forests.

    freshwater Noun

    water that is not salty.

    fuel Noun

    material that provides power or energy.

    fungus Noun

    (plural: fungi) type of organism that survives by decomposing and absorbing the material in which it grows.

    government Noun

    system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit.

    grazing animal Noun

    animal that feeds on grasses, trees, and shrubs.

    gross domestic product (GDP) Noun

    value of the goods and services produced by a single country during a single year.

    human geography Noun

    the study of the way human communities and systems interact with their environment.

    hydroelectric power Noun

    usable energy generated by moving water converted to electricity.

    immigrant Noun

    person who moves to a new country or region.

    industry Noun

    activity that produces goods and services.

    inefficient Adjective

    not able to perform a task well.

    infrastructure Noun

    structures and facilities necessary for the functioning of a society, such as roads.

    iron Noun

    chemical element with the symbol Fe.

    irrigate Verb

    to water.

    livestock noun, plural noun

    animals raised for sale and profit.

    lucrative Adjective

    profitable or money-making.

    manufacturing Noun

    production of goods or products in a factory.

    marine Adjective

    having to do with the ocean.

    megalopolis Noun

    the union of two or more urban areas into a continuous metropolitan area. Also called a conurbation.

    mineral Noun

    inorganic material that has a characteristic chemical composition and specific crystal structure.

    mining Noun

    process of extracting ore from the Earth.

    natural gas Noun

    type of fossil fuel made up mostly of the gas methane.

    Encyclopedic Entry: natural gas
    natural resource Noun

    a material that humans take from the natural environment to survive, to satisfy their needs, or to trade with others.

    nutrient Noun

    substance an organism needs for energy, growth, and life.

    Encyclopedic Entry: nutrient
    oil Noun

    fossil fuel formed from the remains of marine plants and animals. Also known as petroleum or crude oil.

    ore Noun

    deposit in the Earth of minerals containing valuable metal.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ore
    overfish Verb

    to harvest aquatic life to the point where species become rare in the area.

    Pampas Noun

    flat grasslands of South America.

    pasture Noun

    type of agricultural land used for grazing livestock.

    physical geography Noun

    study of the natural features and processes of the Earth.

    plywood Noun

    thin layers of wood glued together and used for construction material.

    pollution Noun

    introduction of harmful materials into the environment.

    Encyclopedic Entry: pollution
    port Noun

    place on a body of water where ships can tie up or dock and load and unload cargo.

    Encyclopedic Entry: port
    precipitation Noun

    all forms in which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere.

    Encyclopedic Entry: precipitation
    quinoa Noun

    grain-like plant with seeds that are cooked and eaten as a food staple in South America.

    rain forest Noun

    area of tall, mostly evergreen trees and a high amount of rainfall.

    Encyclopedic Entry: Rain forest
    ranching Noun

    practice of raising livestock for human use, such as food or clothing.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ranching
    refinery Noun

    industrial installation that purifies a substance, in order to make it more useful.

    resource Noun

    available supply of materials, goods, or services. Resources can be natural or human.

    sewage Noun

    liquid and solid waste material from homes and businesses.

    smelter Noun

    industrial plant or machinery that melts large amounts of ore to extract metal.

    starch Noun

    carbohydrate found in many vegetables and cereals.

    steel Noun

    metal made of the elements iron and carbon.

    subway Noun

    underground railway; a popular form of public transportation in large urban areas.

    temperate Adjective


    textile Noun

    cloth or other woven fabric.

    transportation Noun

    movement of people or goods from one place to another.

    tree plantation Noun

    farm where trees are grown for the lumber industry.

    tropical Adjective

    existing in the tropics, the latitudes between the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the south.

    tropical wet and dry climate Noun

    region that experiences three seasons: cool, hot, and wet.

    utility Noun

    company or organization that distributes electricity, water, or gas to residents and businesses.

    vegetation Noun

    all the plant life of a specific place.