The Earth is made up of layers, much like the inside of an onion. At the center is the core. It is divided into the solid inner core and the liquid outer core. The core is the hottest part of the planet, and it is surrounded by a middle layer of melted rock that moves like a liquid, called the mantle

The upper-most part of the mantle becomes solid. Above this is the crust. The crust is made up of hard rock and is the outer layer of the Earth. Together, these solid parts are known as the lithosphere

Above the lithosphere is the atmosphere, which is the air that surrounds the planet. Below the lithosphere is the asthenosphere. In the asthenosphere, heat from the core causes rocks to melt. The melted rock in the asthenosphere moves like a thick, sticky liquid. Scientists have a name for the point where the lithosphere changes to the asthenosphere. It is called the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). 

There are two types of lithosphere. Continental lithosphere is found on land, while oceanic lithosphere makes up the sea floor. 

Plate Tectonics

The lithosphere is divided into huge slabs called tectonic plates. The heat from the mantle makes the rocks at the bottom of lithosphere slightly soft. This causes the plates to move. The movement of these plates is known as plate tectonics. Most tectonic activity takes place where these plates meet. They collide, tear apart, or slide against each other. 

Tectonic activity is responsible for many natural events. These include earthquakes and volcanoes. Plate tectonics is what allows mountains and deep ocean trenches to form. 

Our Planet's Five Influences

The hard rock of the lithosphere is just one influence on the Earth. Ice, liquid water, air and living things play an equal role in shaping the environment

For example, soil is created through a combination of environmental factors. Wind or rain can wear down rocks in the lithosphere. Then, plant and animal remains mix with these rocks to create fertile soil.

These five influences shape every environment on Earth. In mountain ranges, the lithosphere interacts with the thinner air and snow to create a cool or even icy climate zone. Wind can wear rocks into sandy deserts. Healthy soil and rain make it easy for living things to grow in the forest. Plants and animals have adapted over time to fit all of Earth's environments.

Extraterrestrial Lithospheres

All non-gas planets have lithospheres, but they are not all alike. The lithospheres of Mercury, Venus and Mars are much thicker and more rigid than Earth's lithosphere.

 

lithosphere
The rocky lithosphere includes part of the upper mantle and crust.
Noun

a modification of an organism or its parts that makes it more fit for existence. An adaptation is passed from generation to generation.

air pressure
Noun

force pressed on an object by air or atmosphere.

asthenosphere
Noun

layer in Earth's mantle between the lithosphere (above) and the upper mantle (below).

Noun

layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.

Noun

all the different kinds of living organisms within a given area.

Noun

part of the Earth where life exists.

brittle
Adjective

fragile or easily broken.

climate zone
Noun

area separated from others by its long-term weather patterns.

component
Noun

part.

continental crust
Noun

thick layer of Earth that sits beneath continents.

convection
Noun

transfer of heat by the movement of the heated parts of a liquid or gas.

Noun

rocky outermost layer of Earth or other planet.

cryosphere
Noun

icy part of the Earth's waterincluding icebergs, glaciers, and ice caps.

dense
Adjective

having parts or molecules that are packed closely together.

diverse
Adjective

varied or having many different types.

ductility
Noun

ability of a solid material to withstand stress or force by changing form instead of breaking.

Noun

our planet, the third from the Sun. The Earth is the only place in the known universe that supports life.

earthquake
Noun

the sudden shaking of Earth's crust caused by the release of energy along fault lines or from volcanic activity.

elastic
Adjective

able to bend easily.

environment
Noun

conditions that surround and influence an organism or community.

Noun

act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice.

fertile
Adjective

able to produce crops or sustain agriculture.

geologic
Adjective

having to do with the physical formations of the Earth.

geologist
Noun

person who studies the physical formations of the Earth.

Noun

mass of ice that moves slowly over land.

Noun

land that rises above its surroundings and has a rounded summit, usually less than 300 meters (1,000 feet).

Noun

all the Earth's water in the ground, on the surface, and in the air.

Noun

the geographic features of a region.

Noun

outer, solid portion of the Earth. Also called the geosphere.

lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB)
Noun

chemical and mechanical distinction between the cool, rigid lithosphere and the warmer, more ductile asthenosphere.

Noun

middle layer of the Earth, made of mostly solid rock.

mid-ocean ridge
Noun

underwater mountain range.

mountain
Noun

landmass that forms as tectonic plates interact with each other.

oceanic crust
Noun

thin layer of the Earth that sits beneath ocean basins.

Noun

a long, deep depression in the ocean floor.

organic
Adjective

composed of living or once-living material.

orogeny
Noun

the way mountains are formed.

pedosphere
Noun

layer of Earth consisting of soil and all it contains (such as water, air, organisms).

plastic
Noun

chemical material that can be easily shaped when heated to a high temperature.

Noun

all forms in which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere.

Noun

all forms in which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere.

Noun

liquid precipitation.

remains
Noun

materials left from a dead or absent organism.

rheologist
Noun

scientist who studies the flow and shape-changing (deformation) of matter.

Noun

depression in the ground caused by the Earth's crust spreading apart.

rigid
Adjective

stiff.

rock
Noun

natural substance composed of solid mineral matter.

salinity
Noun

saltiness.

snow
Noun

precipitation made of ice crystals.

soil
Noun

top layer of the Earth's surface where plants can grow.

stress
Verb

to strain or put pressure on.

tectonic activity
Noun

movement of tectonic plates resulting in geologic activity such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.

tectonic plate
Noun

massive slab of solid rock made up of Earth's lithosphere (crust and upper mantle). Also called lithospheric plate.

Noun

degree of hotness or coldness measured by a thermometer with a numerical scale.

thermal energy
Noun

heat, measured in joules or calories.

valley
Noun

depression in the Earth between hills.

viscous
Adjective

liquid that is thick and sticky.

Noun

an opening in the Earth's crust, through which lava, ash, and gases erupt, and also the cone built by eruptions.

Noun

the breaking down or dissolving of the Earth's surface rocks and minerals.

wind
Noun

movement of air (from a high pressure zone to a low pressure zone) caused by the uneven heating of the Earth by the sun.