A mathematical calculation known as the Exner equation helps geologists and hydrologists determine the extent of a flood plain. The Exner equation describes the relationship between the sediment that is transported by a river and the sediment that is deposited by a river. The equation is dominated by the density and distribution of sediment in a river.
is the change in bed elevation. is time. is grain packing density. is sediment flux.
flood that has a one-percent chance of occurring any year.
to soak up.
process of raising the level (grade) of a stream or river through the deposit of sediments.
the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).
fan-shaped deposit of eroded material, usually sediment and sand.
gravel, sand, and smaller materials deposited by flowing water.
eager to achieve wealth, power, status, or a specific goal.
an underground layer of rock or earth which holds groundwater.
style and design of buildings or open spaces.
a slope of land adjoining a body of water, or a large elevated area of the sea floor.
process in which water is deliberately filtered through the banks or flood plain of a river or lake.
type of dark volcanic rock.
a dip or depression in the surface of the land or ocean floor.
all the different kinds of living organisms within a given area.
furthest extent of a flood plain, where the valley floor begins to rise. Also called a valley wall.
flowing body of water separated into channels by tiny islands.
behavior exhibited by whales, when they jump above the surface of the water.
goods carried by a ship, plane, or other vehicle.
cows and oxen.
deepest part of a shallow body of water, often a passageway for ships.
complex way of life that developed as humans began to develop urban settlements.
trade, or the exchange of goods and services.
person who works to preserve natural habitats.
deposit that forms when a stream breaks its natural or artificial levees and deposits sediment on a flood plain.
type of fluvial (river-formed) earthen terrace in which the flowing stream erodes the material aggraded on its banks.
harm that reduces usefulness or value.
in a skillful manner.
the flat, low-lying plain that sometimes forms at the mouth of a river from deposits of sediments.
area of land that receives no more than 25 centimeters (10 inches) of precipitation a year.
to name or single out.
very destructive or damaging.
construction or preparation of land for housing, industry, or agriculture.
a barrier, usually a natural or artificial wall used to regulate water levels.
individual or distinct.
to scatter and disappear.
to divide and spread out materials.
to direct away from a familiar path.
period of greatly reduced precipitation.
to die or suffocate in a liquid.
time of year with little precipitation.
having to do with money.
community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.
performing a task with skill and minimal waste.
place where victims of natural disasters, refugees, and other people relocated from their homes can stay for short periods of time.
organism threatened with extinction.
species that naturally occurs in only one area or region.
person who plans the building of things, such as structures (construction engineer) or substances (chemical engineer).
body of water that flows only after a fall of precipitation.
act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice.
to leave or remove from a dangerous place.
removal of people, organisms, or objects from an endangered area.
additional part of a larger project or organization.
unusual or uncommon.
the art, science, and business of cultivating the land for growing crops.
able to produce crops or sustain agriculture.
type of fluvial (river-formed) earthen terrace formed by the build-up of sediment on a river's banks.
to remove particles from a substance by passing the substance through a screen or other material that catches larger particles and lets the rest of the substance pass through.
flood insurance rate map.
side of something.
sudden, short, and heavy flow of water.
to overflow or cover in water or another liquid.
outer area of a flood plain, often waterlogged by a flood but not experiencing currents.
area of grassland next to a river or stream, prone to seasonal flooding.
flat area alongside a stream or river that is subject to flooding.
main channel of a river in a flood plain.
tiered, step-shaped feature that flanks the banks of a river or stream.
food for livestock consisting of whole plants.
ecosystem filled with trees and underbrush.
having to do with the physical formations of the Earth.
person who studies the physical formations of the Earth.
respiratory organs that draw oxygen from water and into the bloodstream.
mass of ice that moves slowly over land.
deep, narrow valley with steep sides, usually smaller than a canyon.
harvested seed of such grasses as wheat, oats, and rice.
ecosystem with large, flat areas of grasses.
area of undeveloped land usually used for recreation.
environment where an organism lives throughout the year or for shorter periods of time.
activity that produces goods and services.
structures and facilities necessary for the functioning of a society, such as roads.
money paid in good health to guarantee financial or physical health if injury or damage occurs.
watering land, usually for agriculture, by artificial means.
the geographic features of a region.
bank of a river, raised either naturally or constructed by people.
animals raised for sale and profit.
having to do with the management or movement of goods and services.
profitable or money-making.
organ in an animal that is necessary for breathing.
largest river or channel in a watershed or drainage basin.
wetland area usually covered by a shallow layer of seawater or freshwater.
large curve in a lake or stream.
ancient region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, today lying mostly in Iraq.
area connecting wildlife habitats disturbed and interrupted by human activity. Also called a green corridor.
an event occurring naturally that has large-scale effects on the environment and people, such as a volcano, earthquake, or hurricane.
to plan and direct the course of a journey.
substance an organism needs for energy, growth, and life.
something that slows or stops progress.
lake formed from an abandoned bend in a river.
type of agricultural land used for grazing livestock.
an unusual act or occurrence.
system of pipes for transporting liquids to and from a building.
introduction of harmful materials into the environment.
all forms in which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere.
to know the outcome of a situation in advance.
simple or crude.
time of year when most of the rain in a region falls.
large farm on which livestock are raised.
areas of fast-flowing water in a river or stream that is making a slight descent.
to move a residence or business from one place to another.
having to do with people's homes.
having to do with a river or stream.
large stream of flowing fresh water.
depression in the earth caused by a river eroding the surrounding soil.
overflow of fluid from a farm or industrial factory.
to fill one substance with as much of another substance as it can take.
increase in the average reach of the ocean. The current sea level rise is 1.8 millimeters (.07 inch) per year.
likely to change with the seasons.
solid material transported and deposited by water, ice, and wind.
to slowly flow through a border.
small sediment particles.
body of flowing fluid.
measurement of how steep a riverbed is.
sinking or lowering of the Earth's surface, either by natural or man-made processes.
able to be influenced to behave a certain way.
land permanently saturated with water and sometimes covered with it.
path or line of material.
topographic features of an area.
the most valuable, upper layer of soil, where most nutrients are found.
buying, selling, or exchanging of goods and services.
movement of people or goods from one place to another.
stream that feeds, or flows, into a larger stream.
woodland area flanking a river on a flood plain. Also called a riparian forest.
developed, densely populated area where most inhabitants have nonagricultural jobs.
person who works to create or improve the natural, built, economic, and social environments of urban areas.
depression in the Earth between hills.
huge and spread out.
all the plant life of a specific place.
measurement of the rate and direction of change in the position of an object.
necessary or very important.
flooded or overflowing with water.
area of grassland next to a river or stream, intentionally flooded to maintain fertility and dissipate floodwaters.
area of land covered by shallow water or saturated by water.
fast-moving parts of a river.