• Earth Day is an annual celebration that honors the achievements of the environmental movement and raises awareness of the need to protect Earths natural resources for future generations. Earth Day is celebrated on April 22 in the United States and on either April 22 or the day the spring equinox occurs throughout the rest of the world.

    Environmental activism during the 1960s inspired Wisconsin Sen. Gaylord Nelson to create a national celebration uniting the environmental movement. With the help of Denis Hayes, a graduate student at Harvard University, Nelson organized the first Earth Day on April 22, 1970, educating participants in the importance of environmental conservation. Attended by 20 million people across the United States, the event strengthened support for legislation such as the Clean Air Act (updated in 1970) and the Endangered Species Act (1973).

    In 1990, Hayes organized a global Earth Day, with more than 200 million participants in more than 140 countries. Earth Day now brings together citizens and activists from around the world to raise awareness and take action regarding such environmental concerns as global warming and renewable energy.

    Today, the Earth Day Network (EDN), which brings together more than 20,000 partners and organizations in 190 countries, supports the Earth Day mission year-round. This mission is founded on the premise that all people, regardless of race, gender, income, or geography, have a moral right to a healthy, sustainable environment. The Earth Day Network pursues this mission through education, public policy, and activism campaigns. These campaigns bring together more than 1 billion participants every year, making it one of the largest public, secular events in the world.

    The Earth Day Network pursues a set of core goals:

    • Broaden the meaning of environment to include issues such as climate change, green schools and environmental curricula, green jobs, and renewable energy;
    • Diversify the movement by providing civic engagement opportunities at the local, state, national and global levels around the world. Recognizing that climate change impacts our most vulnerable citizens first and most severely, EDN often works with low-income communities to bring their voices and issues into the movement.
    • Mobilize communities by working with partner organizations to provide opportunities for all citizens to become active in the environmental movement.

    Earth Days Core Issues

    This set of goals underlines Earth Day events and actions around the world, which can be organized into ten core issues.

    Advocacy: Supporters encourage individuals and organizations to meet with elected officials to discuss environmental issues. The online program "Million Acts of Green," for instance, encourages visitors to adopt lifestyle changes such as composting, reducing your carbon footprint, or recycling e-waste.

    Climate Change: Supporters raise awareness about climate change, human contribution to those changes, and opportunities to slow the phenomenon. Many Earth Day supporters, for instance, encourage citizens to support the landmark Paris Climate agreement, set to be signed on Earth Day 2016.

    Conservation & Biology: Supporters work to conserve the world's biodiversity. On Earth Day 2010, for instance, participants in Sri Lanka planted more than 100 medicinal plants throughout the tropical rain forest at Yagirala Forest Reserve. These plants can be used by local populations and will create habitats for different organisms, enhancing the biodiversity of the island nation.

    Education: Earth Day education programs provide educators, students, and the general public with resources and solutions to create a healthier, more sustainable planet. On Earth Day 2010, for instance, teachers and students in the Compostela Valley region of the Philippines participated in a day-long conference. At the conference, they learned about tree planting and care, participated in nature hikes, and presented their environmental action projects to the community.

    Energy: Advocates support projects that develop renewable energy sources and technologies as means of transitioning off of nonrenewable sources, such as coal and oil. Citizens of Qatar, for example, are invited to switch off their power for one hour on Earth Day in a symbolic stance against human contributions to global warming.

    Food & Agriculture: Supporters raise awareness about some farming practices, such as the use of chemical pesticides, which contribute to environmental degradation. Supporters also advocate for a greater support of organic, local, and sustainable agricultural techniques. Member organizations of this issue group include Articultores, based in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which raises awareness about urban gardening and brings citizens and youth together to plant in abandoned sites in cities.

    Green Economy: Supporters advocate for the creation of green industries and jobs that are connected to renewable energy sources. For example, the Students in Free Enterprise group in Saskatchewan, Canada, sponsors a prize for student projects that make best use of recycled materials.

    Green Schools: The Earth Day Network sponsors the National GREEN Schools Campaign. The GREEN Schools Campaign includes a focus on healthy school lunches, environmental classroom activities, outreach to local and national leaders, and an emphasis on sustainable building techniques.

    Recycling & Waste Reduction: Supporters work to reduce the amount of waste that people produce, and increase the amount that we recycle and reuse. The Beach Bunch group of Brunei, for example, organizes beach-cleaning campaigns.

    Sustainable Development: Supporters promote environmental practices that respect biodiversity and the natural world. Costa Rica, for instance, has implemented the Viaje Limpio program, in which individuals and companies pay a fee for the greenhouse gases they produce through travel. This money goes to protect the rain forest, water resources, and biodiversity of Costa Rica. Viaje Limpio helps the Costa Rican economy, because biodiversity and the rain forest are important natural assets that bring thousands of tourists to the country every year.

    In only 40 years, Earth Day has evolved from a single day celebrating the environmental movement in the United States to a global network that empowers more than a billion people to better understand, protect, and improve the environment.

    Earth Day
    The United Nations declared April 22 "International Mother Earth Day" in 2009. Bolivian President Evo Morales said "Sixty years after adopting the [Universal Declaration of Human Rights], Mother Earth is now, finally, having her rights recognized."

    Why April 22?
    Earth Day falls on April 22. The day was chosen by the original event's organizer, Wisconsin Sen. Gaylord Nelson, for simple reasons. Earth Day was an event focused on college students, and April 22 did not interfere with Spring Break, final exams, major religious holidays such as Easter, and was late enough in spring to anticipate decent weather for outdoor activities.

    Margaret Mead's Holy Day
    "Earth Day is the first holy day which transcends all national borders, yet preserves all geographical integrities, spans mountains and oceans and time belts, and yet brings people all over the world into one resonating accord, is devoted to the preservation of the harmony in nature and yet draws upon the triumphs of technology, the measurement of time, and instantaneous communication through space."

    Margaret Mead, cultural anthropologist

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    achieve Verb

    to accomplish or attain.

    advocate Verb

    to argue in favor of something.

    agriculture Noun

    the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).

    Encyclopedic Entry: agriculture
    annual Adjective


    beach Noun

    narrow strip of land that lies along a body of water.

    Encyclopedic Entry: beach
    biodiversity Noun

    all the different kinds of living organisms within a given area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: biodiversity
    Clean Air Act Noun

    (1955) set of rules and regulations to control air pollution in the United States. Originally called the Air Pollution Control Act, most recently updated in 1990.

    climate change Noun

    gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet.

    Encyclopedic Entry: Earth's Changing Climate
    coal Noun

    dark, solid fossil fuel mined from the earth.

    conservation Noun

    management of a natural resource to prevent exploitation, destruction, or neglect.

    Encyclopedic Entry: conservation
    degradation Noun

    breaking down.

    Earth Day Noun

    April 22, an international holiday to honor the need to protect the environment.

    Encyclopedic Entry: Earth Day
    Earth Day Network (EDN) Noun

    environmental organization founded on the premise that all people, regardless of race, gender, income, or geography, have a moral right to a healthy, sustainable environment.

    economy Noun

    system of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

    Endangered Species Act Noun

    (1973) U.S. legislation that protects endangered species when they are threatened by human activity.

    environment Noun

    conditions that surround and influence an organism or community.

    equinox Noun

    period in which daylight and darkness are nearly equal. There are two equinoxes a year.

    Encyclopedic Entry: equinox
    farming Noun

    the art, science, and business of cultivating the land for growing crops.

    gender Noun

    physical, cultural, and social aspects of sexual identity.

    generation Noun

    group in a species made up of members that are roughly the same age.

    geography Noun

    study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.

    Encyclopedic Entry: geography
    global warming Noun

    increase in the average temperature of the Earth's air and oceans.

    Encyclopedic Entry: The Greenhouse Effect and our Planet
    greenhouse gas Noun

    gas in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and ozone, that absorbs solar heat reflected by the surface of the Earth, warming the atmosphere.

    green job Noun

    work in agricultural, manufacturing, research and development, administrative, and service activities that contributes substantially to preserving or restoring environmental quality.

    habitat Noun

    environment where an organism lives throughout the year or for shorter periods of time.

    Encyclopedic Entry: habitat
    income Noun

    wages, salary, or amount of money earned.

    island Noun

    body of land surrounded by water.

    Encyclopedic Entry: island
    legislation Noun

    law, legal act, or statute.

    medicinal plant Noun

    plant used to cure or comfort people or animals suffering from disease.

    moral Adjective

    right, just, or good.

    natural resource Noun

    a material that humans take from the natural environment to survive, to satisfy their needs, or to trade with others.

    oil Noun

    fossil fuel formed from the remains of marine plants and animals. Also known as petroleum or crude oil.

    organic Adjective

    produced according to standards using limited amounts of chemical additives.

    pesticide Noun

    natural or manufactured substance used to kill organisms that threaten agriculture or are undesirable. Pesticides can be fungicides (which kill harmful fungi), insecticides (which kill harmful insects), herbicides (which kill harmful plants), or rodenticides (which kill harmful rodents.)

    phenomenon Noun

    an unusual act or occurrence.

    premise Noun

    assumption or supporting idea.

    public policy Noun

    course of actions, beliefs, and laws taken by a government having to do with a specific issue or concern.

    race Noun

    arbitrary grouping of people based on genetics and physical characteristics.

    rainforest Noun

    area of tall, mostly evergreen trees and a high amount of rainfall.

    Encyclopedic Entry: Rainforest
    renewable energy Noun

    energy obtained from sources that are virtually inexhaustible and replenish naturally over small time scales relative to the human life span.

    rural Adjective

    having to do with country life, or areas with few residents.

    secular Adjective

    not having to do with religion or spirituality.

    sustainability Noun

    use of resources in such a manner that they will never be exhausted.

    Encyclopedic Entry: Sustainability
    symbolic Adjective

    serving as a representation of something.

    tourist Noun

    person who travels for pleasure.

    urban Adjective

    having to do with city life.