Caesar Augustus was born Gaius Octavius in 63 B.C. His great-uncle was Julius Caesar, who he fought beside in 47 B.C. Augustus impressed his great uncle so much during battle that when Julius Caesar was assassinated in 43 B.C., he had appointed Augustus as heir to his political and personal fortune in his will. Augustus, at the age of 19, accepted the inheritance from Caesar’s will and was quickly plunged into the complicated world of Roman politics. He quickly formed strategic alliances, defeated his political rivals, and won a bitterly fought civil war. In 31 B.C. at the Battle of Actium, Augustus won a decisive victory over his rival Mark Antony and his Egyptian fleet.
Returning to Rome, Augustus was acclaimed a hero. With skill, efficiency, and cleverness, he secured his position as the first Emperor of Rome. Augustus claimed he acted for the glory of the Roman Republic, not for personal power. He appealed to Roman citizens by claiming that he led a frugal and modest life.
Augustus reorganized Roman life throughout the empire. He passed laws to encourage marital stability and renew religious practices. He instituted a system of taxation and a census while also expanding the network of Roman roads. He founded a postal service and established a regular police force and fire brigade in Rome.
Augustus expanded the empire, annexing Egypt, part of Spain, areas of central Europe, and even lands in the Middle East, such as Judea in A.D. 6. These additions, along with the end of civil wars, fostered the growth of an enormous trading network.
Augustus died outside of Naples, Italy in A.D. 14. His body was returned to the capital. Businesses closed the day of his funeral out of deep respect for the emperor. He was a ruler of ability and vision and at his death, Augustus was proclaimed by the Senate to be a Roman god.
Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry emperor Noun
ruler of an empire.
group of nations, territories or other groups of people controlled by a single, more powerful authority.
to receive from ancestors.
Julius Caesar Noun
(100 BCE-44 BCE) leader of ancient Rome.
series of links along which movement or communication can take place.
to enter suddenly, especially into water.
art and science of public policy.
system of government where power rests in citizens who vote and representatives who stand for those citizens. The United States is a republic.
having to do with the civilization of ancient Rome, including the kingdom, republic, and empire.
success or triumph.