Spurred by James Marshall’s discovery of gold in the American River during the winter of 1848, a flood of fortune-seekers came to the California frontier. Though the riches found in the state’s rivers and mines eventually amounted to little more than a flash in the pan, the lingering effects of the massive migration known as the California Gold Rush would dramatically alter the political, social, and environmental landscape of California.

Environment

According to Malcolm J. Rohrbough, a Gold Rush historian and the author of Days of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the American Nation, the countryside of California was torn up as the newly arrived settlers searched for gold. They used high-powered jets of water to wash away hillsides in a practice known as hydraulic mining, and burrowed thousands of mine shafts into the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

“Environmentally, the discovery of gold was a disaster,” he says. “People described the California landscape as looking like it had been dug up by giant moles.”

Eventually, the effects of mining began to harm a new industry developing in California’s Central Valley during the mid-1800s. “The major impact it had was on agriculture, because the mining involved digging up the rivers and producing all this silt,” Rohrbough says. “It also involved, in many cases, using mercury in the process of separating the gold out. All of this flowed downstream, and it heavily damaged the rivers as far as agricultural use is concerned.”

Rohrbough says that throughout the 1860s and 1870s, a fierce conflict developed between the mining and agricultural industries. By the mid-1870s, the California government realized that agriculture was more lucrative than mining. They passed a series of laws that restricted the impact of mining on rivers.

“For example, they outlaw hydraulic mining,” the historian notes. “They severely restrict dredging.”

Social Growth

The California Gold Rush turned the once-rural expanse of California into an area dotted with towns and cities.

“The Gold Rush put San Francisco on the map,” Rohrbough says. “It also was instrumental in the founding and growth of Stockton and Sacramento.”

The importance of San Francisco was validated when it was decided that the first transcontinental railroad, a train line that connected the east coast and the west coast of the United States, would have its western terminus in the growing city.

“The transcontinental railroad in a sense solidifies San Francisco’s position as the dominant western city, which it will remain until the railroad spreads and brings Los Angeles into play,” Rohrbough says.

The influx of gold-seekers to California also affected the makeup of the state’s population. The Mexican people who had lived in the region when it was part of Mexico saw their influence erode.

The Americans began to exert their power by passing the Foreign Miners License Law, a discriminatory piece of legislation that charged foreign miners a $20 fee per month. “The fact that it was passed suggests that it was passed deliberately to try to exclude foreign miners from the best of the claims,” Rohrbough says.

Though the $20 a month foreign mining fee was repealed, a new $3 a month tax was aimed primarily at the Chinese miners, according to Rohrbough.

The historian notes that the small number of women around the gold fields gave the females that arrived in California a multitude of ways to make money. “They [the California gold mining regions] were among the most male places in the world,” he says. “The scarcity of women certainly enhanced their advantages and their commercial opportunities.”

Golden State

According to Rohrbough, one of the California Gold Rush’s main contributions was the rapid “Americanization” of California. He says that the flood of gold-seekers was a major factor in California becoming a state in 1850, while the territories of New Mexico and Arizona, which were acquired at the same time, didn’t enjoy statehood status until 1912.

Before the Gold Rush, California was a frontier with only a tenuous connection to the rest of the United States. But the massive amount of Americans who settled in California stayed connected to their families on the East Coast and in the Midwest. They considered the state an extension of the United States, according to Rohrbough.

“I think it’s a significant event, because the California Gold Rush was the decisive influence in bringing together the east with the newly acquired western extensions of the American empire, especially California,” he says. “In other words, the Gold Rush didn’t separate the nation by creating an east and a west. It united the nation by bringing the west into the rest of the nation.”

After the Gold Rush
Signs point to San Francisco's Chinatown, North Beach (the city's "Little Italy") and Fisherman's Wharf.

Capital Change
Monterey was the capital of California under Spanish and Mexican rule, beginning in 1777. When California became a state in 1850, the capital was moved to Sacramentowhere gold had been discovered just two years earlier.

Golden Governors
Nine of the first ten governors of California were forty-niners, immigrants who came to the state during the Gold Rush. The first Californian governor of the state was Romualdo Pacheco of Santa Barbara, who served less than a year in 1875.

Gold Rushes
California isnt the only region redefined by a gold rush. Australia experienced the Victorian Gold Rush in 1851. The continents population almost tripled in ten years. South Africas Witwatersrand Gold Rush created the city of Johannesburg, now the nations capital.

acquire
Verb

to get or take possession of.

Noun

the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).

alter
Verb

to change.

Americanize
Verb

to adopt the culture and style of an American.

amount
Verb

to add up or total.

burrow
Verb

to dig a small hole or tunnel.

California Gold Rush
Noun

(1848-1855) worldwide immigration to California following the discovery of gold.

claim
Noun

land demanded or requested by an individual, usually for mining purposes.

commercial
Adjective

having to do with the buying and selling of goods and services.

decisive
Adjective

able to make decisions with certainty.

deliberately
Adverb

on purpose.

disaster
Noun

terrible and damaging event.

discovery
Noun

something seen, documented, or noticed for the first time.

discriminatory
Adjective

biased or prejudiced.

dominant
Adjective

main or most important.

dramatic
Adjective

very expressive or emotional.

dredge
Verb

to remove sand, silt, or other material from the bottom of a body of water.

empire
Noun

group of nations, territories or other groups of people controlled by a single, more powerful authority.

enhance
Verb

to add to or increase in worth.

erode
Verb

to wear away.

eventually
Adverb

at some point in the future.

exclude
Verb

to purposely leave out.

exert
Verb

to force or pressure.

expanse
Noun

large area.

extension
Noun

additional part of a larger project or organization.

fierce
Adjective

wild or savage.

foothill
Noun

hill at the base of a mountain.

Foreign Miners License Law
Noun

(1850) California law that required miners who were not citizens of the United States to pay a $20 monthly tax.

forty-niner
Noun

immigrant who came to California during the Gold Rush of 1849.

frontier
Noun

largely unpopulated area that is slowly being opened up for settlement.

gold
Noun

valuable chemical element with the symbol Au.

governor
Noun

elected or appointed leader of a state or area.

historian
Noun

person who studies events and ideas of the past.

hydraulic mining
Noun

mining technique using a high-pressure stream of water to wash away land.

immigrant
Noun

person who moves to a new country or region.

industry
Noun

activity that produces goods and services.

influence
Verb

to encourage or persuade a person or organization to act a certain way.

influx
Noun

entry or inflow.

instrumental
Adjective

important.

James Marshall
Noun

(1810-1885) American carpenter who discovered gold in California in 1848.

Noun

the geographic features of a region.

legislation
Noun

law, legal act, or statute.

lingering
Adjective

remaining, not going away.

lucrative
Adjective

profitable or money-making.

massive
Adjective

very large or heavy.

mercury
Noun

chemical element with the symbol Hg.

Noun

movement of a group of people or animals from one place to another.

miner
Noun

person who excavates metal or other materials from the Earth.

mine shaft
Noun

tunnel in the earth where ore, minerals, or other material is extracted.

Noun

process of extracting ore from the Earth.

mole
Noun

small mammal that lives in an underground tunnel system.

railroad
Noun

road constructed with metal tracks on which trains travel.

rapid
Adjective

very fast.

redefine
Verb

to identify or organize in a different manner.

Noun

any area on Earth with one or more common characteristics. Regions are the basic units of geography.

repeal
Verb

to overturn or reject something that was once guaranteed.

restrict
Verb

to limit.

rural
Adjective

having to do with country life, or areas with few residents.

scarcity
Noun

situation that arises when demand for a good or service is greater than the supply of that good or service.

settler
Noun

person who migrates and establishes a residence in a largely unpopulated area.

significant
Adjective

important or impressive.

Noun

small sediment particles.

solidify
Verb

to make solid.

spur
Verb

to encourage or move forward.

tax
Noun

money or goods citizens provide to government in return for public services such as military protection.

tenuous
Adjective

thin.

terminus
Noun

end.

territory
Noun

land an animal, human, or government protects from intruders.

transcontinental railroad
Noun

railroad that spans an entire continent.

validate
Verb

to approve or confirm.

Victorian Gold Rush
Noun

(1851-1868) culture surrounding the discovery of gold in Victoria, Australia.

Witwatersrand Gold Rush
Noun

(1886-1896) culture surrounding the discovery of gold near Johannesburg, South Africa.