layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.
part of the Earth where life exists.
chemical element with the symbol C, which forms the basis of all known life.
series of processes in which carbon (C) atoms circulate through Earth's land, ocean, atmosphere, and interior.
carbon compound (such as carbon dioxide) released into the atmosphere, often through human activity such as the burning of fossil fuels such as coal or gas.
dark, solid fossil fuel mined from the earth.
coal deposit. Also called a coal bed.
burning, or the process of a substance reacting with oxygen to produce heat and light.
process by which water vapor becomes liquid.
energy waves affected by both electricity and magnetic fields; includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.
discharge or release.
capacity to do work.
act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice.
process by which liquid water becomes water vapor.
process by which natural resources are extracted and removed from the earth.
coal, oil, or natural gas. Fossil fuels formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals.
phenomenon where gases allow sunlight to enter Earth's atmosphere but make it difficult for heat to escape.
gas in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and ozone, that absorbs solar heat reflected by the surface of the Earth, warming the atmosphere.
system of recycling liquid, gas, and solid water throughout a planet. Also called the water cycle.
all the Earth's water in the ground, on the surface, and in the air.
outer, solid portion of the Earth. Also called the geosphere.
type of fossil fuel made up mostly of the gas methane.
natural resource that exists in a limited supply.
composed of living or once-living material.
fossil fuel formed from the remains of ancient organisms. Also called crude oil.
process by which plants turn water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide into water, oxygen, and simple sugars.
all forms in which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere.
continuous action, operation, or series of changes taking place in a defined manner.
large, concentrated supply or reserve.
processes that explain the relationship between the three rock types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Any rock type can become any other.
process of accumulating small solid deposits.
radiation from the sun.
the process by which snow or ice becomes water vapor without first melting and passing through the liquid phase.
collection of items or organisms that are linked and related, functioning as a whole.
heat, measured in joules or calories.
the breaking down or dissolving of the Earth's surface rocks and minerals.