the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).
area of the planet which can be classified according to the plant and animal life in it.
the ratio of the total number of live births to the total population in a given time and area.
natural or artificial line separating two pieces of land.
land covered by evergreen trees in cool, northern latitudes. Also called taiga.
city where a region's government is located.
large settlement with a high population density.
all weather conditions for a given location over a period of time.
gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet.
edge of land along the sea or other large body of water.
spreading of a species into a new habitat or ecosystem, and establishing a healthy population there.
symbol indicating the cardinal directions (N, S, E, W).
a disagreement or fight, usually over ideas or procedures.
one of the seven main land masses on Earth.
international organization based in Strasbourg, Germany, established "to promote democracy and protect human rights and the rule of law in Europe."
geographic territory with a distinct name, flag, population, boundaries, and government.
human imprint on the physical environment.
learned behavior of people, including their languages, belief systems, social structures, institutions, and material goods.
structure built across a river or other waterway to control the flow of water.
area of land that receives no more than 25 centimeters (10 inches) of precipitation a year.
distinct variation of a language, usually marked by accents and grammar.
in the direction of a flow, toward its end.
an entire river system or an area drained by a river and its tributaries. Also called a watershed.
system of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.
conditions that surround and influence an organism or community.
having to do with characteristics of a group of people linked by shared culture, language, national origin, or other marker.
people sharing genetic characteristics, culture, language, religion or history.
identity in a group sharing genetic characteristics, culture, language, religion, or history.
sixth-largest continent and the western part of the Eurasian landmass, usually defined as stretching westward from the Ural mountains.
association of European nations promoting free trade, ease of transportation, and cultural and political links.
zone extending 200 nautical miles off a country's coast. A country has the right to explore and exploit the living and nonliving things in its EEZ.
to use or take advantage of for profit.
long, narrow ocean inlet between steep slopes.
overflow of a body of water onto land.
flat area alongside a stream or river that is subject to flooding.
able to speak, write, and understand a language.
ecosystem filled with trees and underbrush.
water that is not salty.
study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.
mass of ice that moves slowly over land.
system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit.
environment where an organism lives throughout the year or for shorter periods of time.
plateau or elevated region of land.
the movement of people from one place to another.
usable energy generated by moving water converted to electricity.
process of moving to a new country or region with the intention of staying and living there.
body of land surrounded by water.
large area of land.
the geographic features of a region.
set of sounds, gestures, or symbols that allows people to communicate.
group of languages descended from a common ancestral language.
distance north or south of the Equator, measured in degrees.
explanation of symbols and abbreviations used on a map, also known as a key.
position of a particular point on the surface of the Earth.
distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees.
slow-flowing river ecosystem usually found in lower altitudes.
symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface.
landmass that forms as tectonic plates interact with each other.
series or chain of mountains that are close together.
political unit made of people who share a common territory.
a material that humans take from the natural environment to survive, to satisfy their needs, or to trade with others.
person who moves from place to place, without a fixed home.
something that is learned from watching and measuring an object or pattern.
large body of salt water that covers most of the Earth.
piece of land jutting into a body of water.
naturally occurring geographic characteristics.
flat, smooth area at a low elevation.
imaginary line separating one political unit, such as a country or state, from another.
introduction of harmful materials into the environment.
total number of people or organisms in a particular area.
place on a body of water where ships can tie up or dock and load and unload cargo.
all forms in which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere.
imaginary line around the Earth running north-south, 0 degrees longitude.
any area on Earth with one or more common characteristics. Regions are the basic units of geography.
a system of spiritual or supernatural belief.
natural or man-made lake.
available supply of materials, goods, or services. Resources can be natural or human.
large stream of flowing fresh water.
large part of the ocean enclosed or partly enclosed by land.
base level for measuring elevations. Sea level is determined by measurements taken over a 19-year cycle.
increase in the average reach of the ocean. The current sea level rise is 1.8 millimeters (.07 inch) per year.
small sediment particles.
political unit in a nation, such as the United States, Mexico, or Australia.
nation or national government.
dry, flat grassland with no trees and a cool climate.
use of resources in such a manner that they will never be exhausted.
land an animal, human, or government protects from intruders.
buying, selling, or exchanging of goods and services.
movement of people or goods from one place to another.
stream that feeds, or flows, into a larger stream.
cold, treeless region in Arctic and Antarctic climates.
international organization that works for peace, security and cooperation.
toward an elevated part of a flow of fluid, or place where the fluid passed earlier.
all the plant life of a specific place.
entire river system or an area drained by a river and its tributaries.
area of land covered by shallow water or saturated by water.
(1914-1918) armed conflict between the Allies (led by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) and the Central Powers (led by Germany and Austria-Hungary). Also called the Great War.
(1939-1945) armed conflict between the Allies (represented by the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union) and the Axis (represented by Germany, Italy, and Japan.)