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lava

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Extrusive igneous rocks extrude, or flow over, the landscape—like this slow-moving lava running from Kilauea, Hawaii.
Photograph by Robert Madden, National Geographic

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magma
Article
EDUCATION

magma

Magma is a mixture of molten and semi-molten rock found beneath the surface of the Earth.

  • Best for: Grades 7+ (ages 12+)
  • Concepts: crust, eruptions, igneous rock, lava, magma, mantle, plate tectonics, pressure, viscosity, volcanoes
volcanic cone
Article
EDUCATION

volcanic cone

A volcanic cone is the triangle-shaped hill formed as material from volcanic eruptions piles up around the volcanic vent, or opening in the Earth’s crust.

  • Best for: Grades 6+ (ages 11+)
  • Concepts: craters, geology, hills, lava, mountains, vents, volcanic ash, volcanic cones, volcanoes
Mount Nyiragongo
Photo
EDUCATION

Mount Nyiragongo

Photo: A line of liquid lava flows down the side of a volcano.

  • Concepts: democratic republic of the congo, eruptions, lava, mount nyiragongo, volcanoes
lava
Collection
EDUCATION

lava

Geothermal Eruptions
Photo
EDUCATION

Geothermal Eruptions

Photos of a volcano, geyser, and steam vent.

  • Concepts: eruptions, freshwater, geothermal energy, geysers, lava, magma, steam, vents, volcanoes
stream
Article
EDUCATION

stream

A stream is any body of flowing fluid. The most familiar type of stream is made of water, although streams can also be made of air, lava, electricity, or any other fluid.

  • Best for: Grades 5+ (ages 10+)
  • Concepts: air, currents, electricity, erosion, fluids, freshwater, lava, rivers, streams
Types of Volcanic Eruptions
Activity
EDUCATION

Types of Volcanic Eruptions

Students learn about two major types of volcanoes and watch and discuss a video.

  • Best for: Grades 6-8 (ages 11-14)
  • Concepts: eruptions, natural hazards, volcanoes
Volcanic Eruptions
Activity
EDUCATION

Volcanic Eruptions

Students read first-person accounts of volcanic eruptions and illustrate the eruptions in order to compare and contrast them.

  • Best for: Grades 6-8 (ages 11-14)
  • Concepts: eruptions, natural hazards, volcanoes