On October 22, 2012, American cyclist Lance Armstrong was formally stripped of his record seven Tour de France titles after being charged with using performance-enhancing drugs. Cycling’s governing body, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), also banned Armstrong from competing in any of its events for the rest of his life.
Armstrong was arguably the most well-known cyclist in the world. His aggressive, competitive style helped lead him through the Tour’s grueling course, which includes treks over the Alps and Pyrenees mountain ranges, long stretches of open road, and city biking through the streets of Paris. Armstrong famously battled cancer with the same grit and determination he showed on the Tour, and raised millions of dollars for cancer survivors through his nonprofit organization, Livestrong.
For years, Armstrong had consistently denied using any performance-enhancing drugs. In 2013, he finally admitted to using several banned substances since early in his career.
Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry aggressive Adjective
forceful or offensive.
to prohibit, or not allow.
growth of abnormal cells in the body.
large settlement with a high population density.
courageous and tough character.
mountain range Noun
series or chain of mountains that are close together.
nonprofit organization Noun
business that uses surplus funds to pursue its goals, not to make money.
journey, especially across difficult terrain.