On October 21, 1097, the People’s Crusade ended in failure as Muslim Turks defeated Christian European invaders in what is today northwestern Turkey. The Crusades were a series of conflicts in which Christians (mostly western Europeans) tried to take control of the Holy Land from Muslim leaders.
 
Thousands of French, German, Italian, and other European peasants engaged in the People’s Crusade. After meeting in Cologne, Germany, the group fought among themselves as they made their way through regions of what are now Hungary, Serbia, and northern Turkey. They also led pogroms, or organized massacres, of Jews in Central Europe. These pogroms became known as the Rhineland Massacres—some of the first Christian-led pogroms in recorded history.
 
When they reached Anatolia, the unruly crusaders were met with the organized, disciplined Turkish military. The crusaders of the People’s Crusade were defeated, but the Crusades continued for another 200 years, before ending in Christian defeat in 1291.
Anatolia
Noun

part of the country of Turkey located in Asia.

Christian
Noun

people and culture focused on the teachings of Jesus and his followers.

conflict
Noun

a disagreement or fight, usually over ideas or procedures.

Crusades
Plural Noun

series of wars in which medieval European kingdoms attempted to gain control of the Middle East or "Holy Land."

defeat
Verb

to overcome an enemy or obstacle.

discipline
Verb

to train or control.

engage
Verb

to interact with.

Holy Land
Noun

ancient kingdom on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, of historic significance to Jews, Christians and Muslims.

invade
Verb

to enter and attack.

massacre
Noun

mass killing of large number of people.

military
Noun

armed forces.

Muslim
Adjective

having to do with Islam, the religion based on the words and philosophy of the prophet Mohammed.

organize
Verb

to coordinate and give structure to.

peasant
Noun

person of low social rank and little social mobility in medieval society, usually a small farmer, farmworker, or owner of a houshold industry.

pogrom
Noun

organized, mass killing of Jews.

record
Verb

to preserve observations with notes, drawings, photographs, audio or video recordings.

Noun

any area on Earth with one or more common characteristics. Regions are the basic units of geography.

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