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On November 2, 2000, the first resident crew (Expedition 1) docked at the International Space Station (ISS). Two Russian cosmonauts and American Commander Bill Shepherd stayed on the ISS for about four and a half months.
 
The crew of Expedition 1 had many responsibilities. They set up computers, communications devices, and carbon dioxide removal systems on the ISS. Three space shuttle missions docked with the ISS while Expedition 1 was living there. Shuttle astronauts delivered supplies and conducted experiments. One of the most crucial pieces of cargo was the ISS’ signature photovoltaic array, which powers the space station. Even everyday tasks, such as setting up a food warmer or exercise equipment, was made difficult in zero gravity with limited supplies.
 
As of September 2014, the ISS is home to Expedition 41—a six-person Russian, American, and German crew. Members of Expedition 41 are studying seedling growth, meteors entering Earth’s atmosphere and animal biology. In November 2014, three members of the expedition will stay on board the ISS, joined by Russian, American, and Italian crew, as Expedition 42.
array
Noun

large group.

astronaut
Noun

person who takes part in space flights.

Noun

layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.

biology
Noun

study of living things.

carbon dioxide
Noun

greenhouse gas produced by animals during respiration and used by plants during photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide is also the byproduct of burning fossil fuels.

cargo
Noun

goods carried by a ship, plane, or other vehicle.

communication
Noun

sharing of information and ideas.

computer
Noun

device designed to access data, perform prescribed tasks at high speed, and display the results.

conduct
Verb

to transmit, transport, or carry.

cosmonaut
Noun

Russian or Soviet astronaut.

crew
Noun

workers or employees on a boat or ship.

crucial
Adjective

very important.

deliver
Verb

to transfer or hand over.

device
Noun

tool or piece of machinery.

dock
Verb

to bring and secure a ship or boat to a space or facility.

equipment
Noun

tools and materials to perform a task or function.

experiment
Verb

to try or test an idea.

gravity
Noun

physical force by which objects attract, or pull toward, each other.

International Space Station (ISS)
Noun

satellite in low-Earth orbit that houses several astronauts for months at a time.

Noun

rocky debris from space that enters Earth's atmosphere. Also called a shooting star or falling star.

mission
Noun

important goal or purpose.

observation
Noun

something that is learned from watching and measuring an object or pattern.

photovoltaic
Adjective

able to convert solar radiation to electrical energy.

resident
Noun

person who lives in a specific place.

seedling
Noun

young tree or other plant.

solar panel
Noun

group of cells that converts sunlight into electricity.

space shuttle
Noun

vehicle used to transport astronauts and instruments to and from Earth.

task
Noun

specific piece of work to be done.

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