Basketball is the most frequently offered sport for women in both college and high school. (This team plays in Shelby, Montana.)
Photograph by William Albert Allard, National Geographic

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    On June 23, 1972, Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments went into effect, prohibiting gender discrimination in all educational programs that receive federal funding. Although still commonly called “Title IX,” the law was later named the Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, after its co-author and sponsor in the House of Representatives, Rep. Patsy Mink (D-Hawaii).
     
    Although Title IX mandates equality in all federally funded education programs, its most famous impact has been on high school and college sports. Girls’ athletic programs covered by the law are required to have comparable equipment, facilities, practice time, travel expenses, locker-room space, and medical services.
     
    The results of Title IX include a phenomenal increase in the number of girls and women participating in school sports, which has been linked to greater success in the classroom. President Barack Obama, writing in support of Title IX, reflected: “Today, thanks in no small part to the confidence and determination they developed through competitive sports and the work ethic they learned with their teammates, girls who play sports are more likely to excel in school. In fact, more women as a whole now graduate from college than men. This is a great accomplishment—not just for one sport or one college or even just for women but for America. And this is what Title IX is all about.”
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    accomplishment Noun

    unique achievement, or something done well.

    athletic Adjective

    physically active.

    civil rights Plural Noun

    set of fundamental freedoms guaranteed to all individuals, such as participation in the political system, ability to own property, and due process and equal protection under the law.

    confidence Noun

    belief or trust in something.

    determination Noun

    resolve or willpower.

    discrimination Noun

    treatment based on a group to which a person belongs, not the person himself.

    equipment Noun

    tools and materials to perform a task or function.

    excel Verb

    to do very well.

    federal Adjective

    having to do with a nation's government (as opposed to local or regional government).

    funding Noun

    money or finances.

    gender Noun

    physical, cultural, and social aspects of sexual identity.

    graduate Verb

    to receive a degree or diploma from an educational institution.

    mandate Verb

    command, order, or authorization.

    phenomenal Adjective

    very impressive.

    prohibit Verb

    to disallow or prevent.

    sport Noun

    athletic activity.

    work ethic Noun

    dedication to a job or project.