After the decisive Battle of Actium, Greece, the Roman General Octavian launched an offensive against the combined forces of the Egyptian Pharaoh Cleopatra and the rebel Roman General Mark Antony in their stronghold of Alexandria, Egypt. The Battle of Alexandria, initially a Cleopatran victory, ultimately resulted in Octavian annexing Egypt as a Roman province. Cleopatra was the last reigning pharaoh.
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  • On July 31, 30 BCE, troops supporting Egyptian Pharaoh Cleopatra and Roman General Mark Antony narrowly defeated the forces of Roman General Octavian in the Battle of Alexandria, Egypt. This was one of the final battles in a civil war that had torn the Roman Republic for more than a century.
    Although Cleopatra and Mark Antony won the initial Battle of Alexandria, Octavian quickly launched a second assault and soundly defeated the duo. Both Cleopatra and Mark Antony committed suicide, and Octavian made Egypt a Roman province.
    Having secured his victory in the civil war, Octavian returned triumphantly to Rome. There, he helped turn the semi-democratic Roman Republic into the Roman Empire and became its first emperor, Augustus.
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    assault Noun

    violent attack.

    battle Noun

    violent encounter during a conflict.

    century Noun

    100 years.

    civil war Noun

    conflict between groups in the same country or nation.

    Cleopatra Noun

    (69-30 BCE) queen and last reigning pharaoh of ancient Egypt.

    commit Verb

    to carry out a plan.

    defeat Verb

    to overcome an enemy or obstacle.

    democratic Adjective

    having to do with a government led by its citizens, who vote for policies and/or representatives.

    emperor Noun

    ruler of an empire.

    initial Adjective


    narrowly Adverb

    limited or barely successful.

    pharaoh Noun

    ruler of ancient Egypt.

    Encyclopedic Entry: Pharaoh
    province Noun

    division of a country larger than a town or county.

    Encyclopedic Entry: province
    republic Noun

    system of government where power rests in citizens who vote and representatives who stand for those citizens. The United States is a republic.

    Roman Empire Noun

    (27 BCE-476 CE) period in the history of ancient Rome when the state was ruled by an emperor.

    secure Verb

    to guarantee, or make safe and certain.

    suicide Noun

    intentional taking of one's own life.

    triumph Verb

    to win or be successful.

    troop Noun

    a soldier.

    victory Noun

    success or triumph.