On July 21, 1983, Russian scientists recorded the lowest temperature, measured on the ground, in the world: -89 degrees Celsius (-129 degrees Fahrenheit), in Vostok, a research station in Antarctica. This was the actual temperature of the air, without wind-chill, during the Antarctic winter.
Scientists have since learned that specific weather patterns contributed to Vostok Station’s unusual chill. Cold air circled the station, with almost no clouds above. Warmer air could not circulate. Vostok Station happens to be in a spot of extreme cold, even for Antarctica!
Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry circulate Verb
to move around, often in a pattern.
visible mass of tiny water droplets or ice crystals in Earth's atmosphere.
Encyclopedic Entry: cloud contribute Verb
to give or donate.
research station Noun
structure or structures built for scientific study of the surrounding region, possibly including residential and lab facilities.
to change as a result of exposure to wind, rain, or other atmospheric conditions.
wind-chill temperature Noun
combination of an area's air temperature and wind speed.