On July 21, 1983, Russian scientists recorded the lowest temperature, measured on the ground, in the world: -89 degrees Celsius (-129 degrees Fahrenheit), in Vostok, a research station in Antarctica. This was the actual temperature of the air, without wind-chill, during the Antarctic winter.

Scientists have since learned that specific weather patterns contributed to Vostok Station’s unusual chill. Cold air circled the station, with almost no clouds above. Warmer air could not circulate. Vostok Station happens to be in a spot of extreme cold, even for Antarctica!

circulate
Verb

to move around, often in a pattern.

Noun

visible mass of tiny water droplets or ice crystals in Earth's atmosphere.

contribute
Verb

to give or donate.

research station
Noun

structure or structures built for scientific study of the surrounding region, possibly including residential and lab facilities.

weather
Verb

to change as a result of exposure to wind, rain, or other atmospheric conditions.

wind-chill temperature
Noun

combination of an area's air temperature and wind speed.

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