The Soviet Union's R-7 rocket, part of the "Semyorka" or 7-series, was the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) to be made operational. A modified version of the R-7, a historic model on display in Moscow here, became the basis for almost all Soviet and Russian space launchers.

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  • On February 9, 1959, the R-7 Semyorka, the world’s first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) was ready for operations in Plesetsk, Soviet Union (now Russia). 
    The R-7 was a Soviet victory in the Cold War. With the ICBM, the Soviets had a missile that could deliver its payload (bomb) up to 8,800 kilometers (5,500 miles) away, to within 5 kilometers (3 miles) of the target. The R-7 was capable of carrying a single nuclear warhead, with an energy yield the equivalent of three million tons of TNT.
    Although the R-7 was designed to carry a nuclear weapon, a modified version of the rocket successfully launched the world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik, into orbit and became the basis for almost all Soviet and Russian space launchers.
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    artificial satellite Noun

    object launched into orbit.

    Cold War Noun

    (1947-1991) conflict between the Soviet Union (and its allies) and the United States (and its allies). The two sides never confronted each other directly.

    intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) Noun

    projectile launched into sub-orbit above the Earth and carrying nuclear weapons.

    microscope Noun

    instrument used to view very small objects by making them appear larger.

    nuclear weapon Noun

    explosive device that draws power from the splitting and combining of atomic nuclei.

    operations Noun

    work or work processes.

    orbit Noun

    path of one object around a more massive object.

    Soviet Union Noun

    (1922-1991) large northern Eurasian nation that had a communist government. Also called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the USSR.