George Kennan was one of the earliest American "experts" on Russia and the Russian Empire. Here, he poses in a Georgian military uniform.
Photograph by George Kennan, courtesy Library of Congress
region at Earth's extreme north, encompassed by the Arctic Circle.
all the different kinds of living organisms within a given area.
strong set of cords or wire ropes.
learned behavior of people, including their languages, belief systems, social structures, institutions, and material goods.
to keep track of.
large-scale undertaking or attempt.
to form or officially organize.
journey with a specific purpose, such as exploration.
person who studies unknown areas.
person who controls and takes responsibility for a group of animals such as sheep, cattle, or horses.
to set one thing or organism apart from others.
theory that civilizations move from primitive to technologically advanced, and that the advanced civilizations are the wealthiest, most powerful and most democratic.
(1888) organization whose mission is "Inspiring people to care about the planet."
piece of land jutting into a body of water.
buildings that house convicted criminals and people accused of a crime and awaiting trial.
on time or quickly.
distant or far away.
region of land stretching across Russia from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
severe, striking, or clear-cut.
dry, flat grassland with no trees and a cool climate.
system of communication involving devices connected through electrical wires.
path followed by merchants or explorers to exchange goods and services.
beliefs, customs, and cultural characteristics handed down from one generation to the next.
an opening in the Earth's crust, through which lava, ash, and gases erupt, and also the cone built by eruptions.
environment that has remained essentially undisturbed by human activity.