Mount Fuji is an active volcano that last erupted in 1707.
Photograph by Melville B. Grosvenor, National Geographic
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    On December 16, 1707, scientists recorded the last confirmed eruption of Mount Fuji, Japan’s tallest mountain. Mount Fuji (actually, two volcanoes known as “Old Fuji” and “Young Fuji”) has erupted for more than 100,000 years—and is still an active volcano today.
     
    Mount Fuji’s last eruption ejected tons of tephra into the atmosphere. Tephra includes all solid volcanic material—not lava or volcanic gas. Tephra released by the 1707 eruption of Mount Fuji (called the Hoei eruption) included volcanic ash and volcanic rock such as pumice and scoria. The tephra was so thick that residents of the city of Edo (now known as Tokyo, more than 100 kilometers (62 miles) away) had to use candles in the middle of the day.
     
    Although there were no deaths directly associated with the Hoei eruption, many people did lose their lives as a consequence of Mount Fuji’s volcanic activity. Damage to nearby homes and the tephra fallout reduced agricultural productivity in the region, causing many people to starve.
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    active volcano Noun

    volcano that has had a recorded eruption since the last glacial period, about 10,000 years ago.

    associate Verb

    to connect.

    atmosphere Noun

    layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.

    Encyclopedic Entry: atmosphere
    city Noun

    large settlement with a high population density.

    confirm Verb

    to establish the truth or accuracy of a statement.

    consequence Noun

    result or outcome of an action or situation.

    damage Noun

    harm that reduces usefulness or value.

    eject Verb

    to get rid of or throw out.

    eruption Noun

    release of material from an opening in the Earth's crust.

    lava Noun

    molten rock, or magma, that erupts from volcanoes or fissures in the Earth's surface.

    mountain Noun

    landmass that forms as tectonic plates interact with each other.

    pumice Noun

    type of igneous rock with many pores.

    record Verb

    to preserve observations with notes, drawings, photographs, audio or video recordings.

    reduce Verb

    to lower or lessen.

    region Noun

    any area on Earth with one or more common characteristics. Regions are the basic units of geography.

    Encyclopedic Entry: region
    resident Noun

    person who lives in a specific place.

    scoria Noun

    type of rough, crusty volcanic rock.

    starve Verb

    to die from lack of food.

    tephra Noun

    solid material ejected from a volcano during an eruption.

    volcanic ash Noun

    fragments of lava less than 2 millimeters across.

    Encyclopedic Entry: volcanic ash
    volcanic gas Noun

    gas such as water vapor or carbon dioxide that is released into the atmosphere by a volcano.

    volcano Noun

    an opening in the Earth's crust, through which lava, ash, and gases erupt, and also the cone built by eruptions.

    Encyclopedic Entry: volcano
    volcanologist Noun

    scientist who studies volcanoes.