Select Text Level:

On August 21, 1192, Minamoto Yorimoto was appointed as a shogun, or military leader, in Kamakura, Japan. Yorimoto established Japan’s first military government, or bakufu, called the Kamakura shogunate.
 
Shoguns were hereditary military leaders who were technically appointed by the emperor. However, real power rested with the shoguns themselves, who worked closely with other classes in Japanese society. Shoguns worked with civil servants, who would administer programs such as taxes and trade. They also worked with the daimyo, or wealthy landowners. Finally, shoguns worked with samurai, a warrior class who were usually employed by the daimyo.
 
A series of three major shogunates (Kamakura, Ashikaga, Tokugawa) led Japan for most of its history from 1192 until 1868. The term “shogun” is still used informally, to refer to a powerful behind-the-scenes leader, such as a retired prime minister.
administer
Verb

to oversee, manage, or be in charge of.

appoint
Verb

to assign to a position.

civil servant
Noun

person who works for the government in a non-military capacity.

class
Noun

division in society based on income and type of employment.

daimyo
Noun

wealthy, powerful landowner in historic Japan.

emperor
Noun

ruler of an empire.

employ
Verb

to hire or use.

establish
Verb

to form or officially organize.

government
Noun

system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit.

hereditary
Adjective

having to do with inheritance, or the passing of characteristics from parents to offspring.

informally
Adverb

casual or not according to strict rules.

Noun

armed forces.

prime minister
Noun

leader of government in parliamentary systems of government.

retire
Verb

to voluntarily stop or reduce the number of hours worked.

samurai
Noun

member of a powerful warrior class in historic Japan.

shogun
Noun

top military and government leader in historic Japan.

shogunate
Noun

system of government led by shoguns, or Japanese military leaders. Called bakufu in Japanese.

tax
Noun

money or goods citizens provide to government in return for public services such as military protection.

technically
Adverb

only because of a strict interpretation of a rule or standard.

trade
Noun

buying, selling, or exchanging of goods and services.

warrior
Noun

person experienced or skilled in battle, conflict, or war.

wealthy
Adjective

very rich.

More Dates in History

August
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
26 27 28 29 30 31 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31 1 2 3 4 5