On August 20, 1993, representatives from Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) signed the first of the so-called Oslo Accords in Oslo, Norway. The Oslo Accords would be the last major, long-term initiative for peace between Israelis and Palestinians. The leaders responsible for the Oslo Accords—Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat—were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize the following year.
 
The results of the Oslo Accords included the establishment of the Palestinian Authority, an elected Palestinian government responsible for parts of the disputed West Bank and Gaza Strip territories in Israel. The Oslo Accords also called for the withdrawal of the Israeli military from the West Bank and Gaza, and the promise of continued peace talks.
 
The so-called “Oslo Process” continued throughout the 1990s, with agreements addressing such issues as the release of political prisoners and the construction of Jewish settlements in Palestinian-controlled regions.
 
The Oslo Process fell apart in 2001, when Israelis elected leaders who opposed the accords and Palestinians embarked on the Second Intifada, a violent uprising against Israeli leadership. 
accord
Noun

agreement, usually a settlement of a dispute.

diplomat
Noun

person who negotiates important political and economic agreements, usually for a government.

dispute
Noun

debate or argument.

elect
Verb

to choose by vote.

embark
Verb

to leave or set off on a journey.

establish
Verb

to form or officially organize.

Gaza Strip
Noun

self-governing Palestinian territory in Israel located on Israel's southwestern coast and bordering Egypt.

government
Noun

system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit.

initiative
Noun

first step or move in a plan.

intermediary
Noun

person or organization that serves as a mediator or go-between for two other people or organizations.

military
Noun

armed forces.

negotiate
Verb

to discuss with others of different viewpoints in order to reach an agreement, contract, or treaty.

Nobel Peace Prize
Noun

award recognizing the contributions of a person or organization to "work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace."

Oslo Accords
Plural Noun

(1993-2001) series of agreements to resolve or mitigate the violent conflict between Israelis and Palestinians.

Palestinian Authority
Noun

(Palestinian National Authority) organization responsible for governing the semi-independent areas of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank in Israel.

PLO
Noun

(Palestine Liberation Organization) organization recognized as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" by states with which it holds diplomatic relations.

political prisoner
Noun

person detained by a government because of their political opinion.

Noun

any area on Earth with one or more common characteristics. Regions are the basic units of geography.

representative
Noun

someone or something who acts in place of a group of people.

responsible
Adjective

having accountability, authority, or liability in a situation.

Second Intifada
Noun

(~2000-~2005) Palestinian uprising in Israel.

settlement
Noun

community or village.

territory
Noun

land an animal, human, or government protects from intruders.

uprising
Noun

revolt or rebellion.

violent
Noun

strong, destructive force.

West Bank
Noun

self-governing Palestinian territory in Israel, located in a large area of central Israel, including the west bank of the Jordan River.

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