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  • Columbus Zoo, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  • New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Columbus Zoo, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  • Columbus Zoo, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  • Columbus Zoo, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  • New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Money Island, New Jersey, USA
  • Columbus Zoo, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  • Columbus Zoo, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Photo Ark

Horseshoe Crab

Limulus polyphemus

Columbus Zoo, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Vulnerable

Population Genetic StructureDue to their morphological similarity to mid-Mesozoic taxa, Horseshoe Crabs are considered to be evolutionarily static and have been referred to as phylogenetic relics (Selander et al. 1970). However, close inspection has revealed the presence of considerable variability and geographic differentiation in morphology (Shuster 1979, Riska 1981) and genetic diversity (Selander et al. 1970, King et al. 2005). A range of molecular genetic techniques applied across multiple studies has been utilized in attempts to assess population structure (stock identification) in Horseshoe Crabs. These studies, which now include the first range-wide surveys of nuclear DNA variation in any Horseshoe ... Read More

Bait HarvestHistorically, Horseshoe Crabs along the Delaware Bay were harvested heavily (1 to 5 million per year) for fertilizer dating back to the mid-1800s (Shuster and Botton 1985). Harvest of Horseshoe Crabs for fertilizer declined to a negligible level by the 1960s (Shuster 2003, Kreamer and Michels 2009).Presently the largest coast-wide harvest is for bait. Horseshoe Crabs are commercially harvested primarily for use as bait in the conch (Busycon spp.) pot and American Eel (Anguilla rostrata) pot fisheries (ASMFC 2009). The increase in harvest of Horseshoe Crabs during the 1990s was largely due to increased use as whelk bait (Smith ... Read More

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Smith, D.R., Beekey, M.A., Brockmann, H.J., King, T.L., Millard, M.J. & Zaldívar-Rae, J.A. 2016. Limulus polyphemus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T11987A80159830. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T11987A80159830.en