Civilizations and cities have been developed on estuaries for more than 2,000 years. Centuries of human activity have taken their toll on the delicate ecosystems. In Jakarta, Indonesia, leaders must balance land reclamation, which creates land for the city's growing population, with the costs of disrupting the estuary of the Ciliwung River and Java Sea.

Photograph by Arief Budiman, MyShot
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estuary
estuary Encyclopedic Entry

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An estuary is an area where a freshwater river or stream meets the ocean. When freshwater and seawater combine, the water becomes brackish, or slightly salty.