• The old Sonoma County National Bank building in Petaluma, California, used to house the money of the rural region’s residents. Now, the building is home to a different sort of riches: 1,400 unique varieties of seeds. The Petaluma Seed Bank is helping preserve the region’s agricultural diversity.

    The Baker Creek Heirloom Seed Company runs the Petaluma Seed Bank. Jere Gettle, founder and owner of Baker Creek, points out some of his treasures.

    “One of my favorites is the Chinese red noodle bean,” Gettle says, pulling out a seed packet. The bright red vegetables can grow to 45 centimeters (18 inches) long. “The red color is just stunning on the plants. They are ornamental as well as really delicious.”

    Gettle pulls out seeds of more exotic-sounding produce, including white-flesh watermelons and chocolate peppers.

    He then moves to a bin where customers can find almost 200 varieties of squash. He picks up a packet of black futsu squash seeds. Black futsus will grow into dark green vegetables with a rich, meaty, chestnut flavor.

    “They have a really good taste to them,” he says.

    Seed Banks

    Gettle is part of a growing movement of individuals and organizations determined to sustain lesser-known food varieties by creating seed banks. Large-scale agriculture has focused on producing a small number of plants with desirable traits at the expense of more delicate local varieties. These varieties may be more difficult to grow or ship, but they are tasty and nutritious.

    “Our biggest goal is to preserve the vegetables that have been left by the wayside,” Gettle says.

    Shanyn Siegel, collection curator for Seed Savers Exchange, says her organization has a similar goal.

    “From our perspective, we are a preservation-based organization, so we are trying to maintain the varietal purity with few or no genetic changes occurring each time that we would grow something in the field,” she says.

    Siegel says that what industrialized agriculture wants out of a plant might differ from what consumers desire. For instance, producers might create fruits and vegetables with a tougher skin and longer shelf life, so the produce is easier to transport

    “What’s been lost in the process [of large-scale agriculture] is a lot of varieties in localized food systems that have better eating qualities and better taste,” she says.

    Seed Savers Exchange has more than 25,000 seed types kept on its 890-acre farm in Decorah, Iowa.

    “Our goal is to have them all stored under freezing conditions around -18 degrees Celsius (nearly 0 degrees Fahrenheit), and we have most of our collection held that way,” Siegel says.

    Seed Savers Exchange maintains other collections of its seeds at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation in Fort Collins, Colorado, and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen, in case something happens to its Iowa facility.

    “They are in packages, inventoried, sealed,” Siegel says. “They basically just hold those seeds for us under ideal conditions.”

    Sustainable Seeds

    Some of these rare seeds can be essential when agricultural crises arise. For instance, if a disease wipes out a crop that people have come to rely on, the rare seeds can be used to fill the void.

    “The magic behind sustainable agriculture is a rich and diverse genetic base from which to draw so you can find things that are resistant to the pests and insects, and are naturally drought-tolerant,” says Bill McDorman, executive director of Native Seeds/SEARCH.

    Native Seeds/SEARCH was established in 1983, when the nonprofit organization received the base of its seed collection from more than 50 Native American tribes, including the Apache, Hopi, and Navajo.

    In Tucson, Arizona, the organization has a 465-square-meter (5,000-square-foot) facility, with a climate-controlled storage room. Native Seeds/SEARCH has grown to house a library of 1,800 varieties of seeds native to the American Southwest and northern Mexico.

    A good portion of the seeds is given back to Native American tribes to help keep their agricultural traditions alive. “About 20 percent of the seeds that we send out go to the Native Americans for free,” McDorman says.

    Native Seeds/SEARCH does more than just preserve seeds. “Our design criteria for the seed bank is . . . at least every 10 years . . . take things out that have been in our seed bank, and grow them out again, and evaluate them to make sure that we have fresh seeds to return to the seed bank,” McDorman says.

    Like the “investors” in the Petaluma Seed Bank, McDorman knows what his organization has is valuable. “We see what we have as a huge treasure chest from which anybody in the world can start to draw from,” he says.

    Consumers can “start growing and saving seeds in their own area, and start allowing nature to adapt those genetics there. That’s how after 10,000 years of human agriculture we got all this diversity in the first place.”

    Saving Seeds
    Seed banks preserve humanity's agricultural heritage.

    Seeds of Society
    If we want to live here for a long time, we have to have our own agriculture, especially in an era of diminishing fossil fuels and climate change.
    Bill McDorman, executive director of Native Seeds/SEARCH

    Berry Good
    One of the newest species preserved in seed banks is Fragaria iturupensis, a rare variety of wild strawberry. This fruit grows only on the slopes of a volcano in the remote Kuril Islands in Russia.

    Doomsday Seed Vault
    The Svalbard Global Seed Vault, nicknamed the "Doomsday" seed vault, stores duplicate collections of seeds from seed banks all over the world. The seeds at Svalbard can only be accessed when the original seed collections have been lost. Svalbard has the capacity to house 4.5 million different seed samples. Each sample can contain about 500 seeds; as many as 2.25 billion seeds may be stored.

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    adapt Verb

    to adjust to new surroundings or a new situation.

    agriculture Noun

    the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).

    Encyclopedic Entry: agriculture
    Apache adjective, noun

    people and culture native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.

    bin Noun

    box or other large storage device.

    climate-control Noun

    device for controlling a heating or air-conditioning system.

    consumer Noun

    person who uses a good or service.

    crop Noun

    agricultural produce.

    Encyclopedic Entry: crop
    curator Noun

    person who designs, assembles, and manages an exhibit at a museum or other cultural center.

    delicate Adjective

    fragile or easily damaged.

    delicious Adjective

    pleasing to the taste.

    diversity Noun


    drought-tolerant Adjective

    able to survive an arid climate.

    ecosystem Noun

    community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ecosystem
    essential Adjective


    exotic Adjective

    foreign or strange.

    facility Noun

    a building or room that serves a specific function.

    food Noun

    material, usually of plant or animal origin, that living organisms use to obtain nutrients.

    Encyclopedic Entry: food
    fruit Noun

    edible part of a plant that grows from a flower.

    genetic Adjective

    having to do with genes, inherited characteristics or heredity.

    Hopi Noun

    people and culture native to the southwestern U.S.

    industrialize Verb

    to develop large-scale factories and plants (industry).

    insect Noun

    type of animal that breathes air and has a body divided into three segments, with six legs and usually wings.

    island Noun

    body of land surrounded by water.

    Encyclopedic Entry: island
    maintain Verb

    to continue, keep up, or support.

    Native American Noun

    person whose ancestors were native inhabitants of North or South America. Native American usually does not include Eskimo or Hawaiian people.

    Navajo Noun

    people and culture native to the southwestern United States.

    nonprofit organization Noun

    business that uses surplus funds to pursue its goals, not to make money.

    nutritious Adjective

    containing healthy nutrients.

    ornamental Adjective

    decorative or presented for beauty.

    perspective Noun

    representation of volume or depth on a flat surface.

    pest Noun

    harmful or annoying person or thing.

    preserve Verb

    to maintain and keep safe from damage.

    produce Noun

    agricultural products such as vegetables and fruits.

    rare Adjective

    unusual or uncommon.

    region Noun

    any area on Earth with one or more common characteristics. Regions are the basic units of geography.

    Encyclopedic Entry: region
    resistant Adjective

    able to withstand the effects of a substance, material, or behavior.

    rural Adjective

    having to do with country life, or areas with few residents.

    seed Noun

    part of a plant from which a new plant grows.

    seed bank Noun

    collection of seeds, preserved in case other specimens are destroyed.

    shelf life Noun

    amount of time a product remains safe and useful.

    similar Adjective

    alike or resembling.

    storage Noun

    space for keeping materials for use at a later time.

    sustain Verb

    to support.

    sustainable agriculture Noun

    processes for growing crops and raising livestock that makes the most efficient use of resources. Sustainable agriculture aims to cultivate the land so it may be used by future generations.

    tradition Noun

    beliefs, customs, and cultural characteristics handed down from one generation to the next.

    trait Noun

    characteristic or aspect.

    transport Verb

    to move material from one place to another.

    tribe Noun

    community made of one or several family groups sharing a common culture.

    unique Adjective

    one of a kind.

    varietal Adjective

    product made with a specific variety or species of plant.

    vegetable Noun

    plant that is grown or harvested for food.