Sandra studies the relationship between water resources and agriculture, industry, health, and security. She shares this information with the public through writing and lectures.

As founder of the Global Water Policy Project and lead expert for National Geographic’s Freshwater Initiative, her goal is to promote the conservation and sustainable use of Earth’s freshwater resources.

EARLY WORK

Sandra says she grew up in New York as a “Long Island beach kid.” She was always aware of the “solace, peace, and balance” offered by the natural world, especially aquatic environments of wetlands and rivers.

In college, Sandra studied both the natural and human environments and how they interact with each other. She earned her undergraduate degrees in geology and political science from Wittenberg University in Springfield, Ohio. Sandra went on to earn an M.E.M. degree from Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. (M.E.M. stands for “Master of Engineering Management.” M.E.M. degrees combine the technical and scientific aspects of engineering with business and economic aspects of management.)

MOST EXCITING PART OF YOUR WORK

“Learning about people, developing solutions to big problems.”

MOST DEMANDING PART OF YOUR WORK

“So much to do, so little time!”

HOW DO YOU DEFINE GEOGRAPHY?

“The study of place, including social and ecological systems . . . the whole package! . . . I look at the world through a water lens, so geography also incorporates how water is being affected in a certain place.”

GEO-CONNECTION

Before starting work on a project, Sandra considers an area’s “geography of water”: the amount of water in the area’s aquifer or basin, the population, and the agricultural use of water.

The geography of water helps Sandra determine an area’s water stress. Water stress is the situation when a community is “using more water than nature made available.”

Communities can stress their water supply in many different ways: “Irrigation depletes rivers; populations rise, requiring more safe drinking water; the amount of water needed to supply food to a population—agriculture—grows,” Sandra explains.

Sandra first became aware of the concept of water stress after reading Swedish hydrologist Malin Falkenmark’s book Water for a Starving World. This groundbreaking work linked water use, food, and population.

As Sandra began to understand water stress, she realized it “affects everything,” from a community’s development to its political security. “So many great civilizations developed alongside rivers and lakes,” she says, pointing to the ancient civilizations of Ur (between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers), Egypt (which developed on the Nile), and the Indus River Valley.

Today, Sandra points out, more than 200 rivers are shared between two or more nations. Dams and other river management techniques implemented by nations upstream have a huge impact on nations downstream. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers have their sources in Turkey, for example, but their basins are in Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. River management from Turkey would impact the freshwater available to these countries for drinking, hygiene, industry, and transportation.

Water management has become part of many nations’ foreign policy. Sandra points to the Mekong River Commission. The headwaters of the Mekong River are in China, although the basin is nearly 800,000 square kilometers (308,881 square miles) and includes the nations of Myanmar (Burma), Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. Many governments are members of the Mekong River Commission, which promotes sustainable development of the water supply. China is not a member.

SO, YOU WANT TO BE A . . . CONSERVATIONIST

“Spend time outdoors. Find out which science you’re interested in, find your niche.”

Sandra also recommends at least some engineering classes. “When you find out how things work, you find out how to change to make it better.”


GET INVOLVED

“Know your watershed!”

Knowing where your water comes from creates a “connection to a place in nature, and what’s happening in nature . . . and how that affects you.”

Sandra also encourages everyone to be aware of their water footprint. There are four parts of a water footprint: household use, diet, energy, and materials. Household use includes water used for showering and washing clothes and dishes. Diet is the food we eat, including drinking water and the water used to grow foods, such as corn and tomatoes, and raise animals, such as cattle and pigs. Energy use includes the water used to build and operate cars, buses, and planes. Materials includes the water used to make clothing, furniture, and electronics.

Calculate your water footprint here.

Freshwater Conservationist: Sandra Postel
Sandra Postel is a freshwater conservationist.
Noun

the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).

ancient
Adjective

very old.

aquatic
Adjective

having to do with water.

Noun

an underground layer of rock or earth which holds groundwater.

aspect
Noun

view or interpretation.

Noun

a dip or depression in the surface of the land or ocean floor.

Noun

narrow strip of land that lies along a body of water.

cattle
Noun

cows and oxen.

Noun

complex way of life that developed as humans began to develop urban settlements.

concept
Noun

idea.

Noun

management of a natural resource to prevent exploitation, destruction, or neglect.

dam
Noun

structure built across a river or other waterway to control the flow of water.

deplete
Verb

to use up.

development
Noun

construction or preparation of land for housing, industry, or agriculture.

Noun

foods eaten by a specific group of people or other organisms.

downstream
Noun

in the direction of a flow, toward its end.

ecological
Adjective

having to do with the relationship between organisms and their environment.

economic
Adjective

having to do with money.

electronics
Noun

devices or tools that use electricity to work.

energy
Noun

capacity to do work.

engineering
Noun

the art and science of building, maintaining, moving, and demolishing structures.

environment
Noun

conditions that surround and influence an organism or community.

Noun

material, usually of plant or animal origin, that living organisms use to obtain nutrients.

foreign policy
Noun

courses of action or thought that guide a nation's relationship with other nations.

furniture
Noun

moveable articles, such as chairs and shelves, for furnishing a residence.

Noun

study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.

geology
Noun

study of the physical history of the Earth, its composition, its structure, and the processes that form and change it.

government
Noun

system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit.

groundbreaking
Adjective

innovative or pioneering.

headwater
Noun

source of a river.

health
Noun

condition of an organism's body and mind.

hydrologist
Noun

person who studies the distribution, circulation, and properties of water.

hygiene
Noun

science and methods of keeping clean and healthy.

impact
Noun

meaning or effect.

implement
Verb

to carry out plans.

incorporate
Verb

to blend or bring together.

industry
Noun

activity that produces goods and services.

interact
Verb

to work with or meet.

Noun

watering land, usually for agriculture, by artificial means.

lens
Noun

transparent substance used to alter a person's vision.

Noun

political unit made of people who share a common territory.

niche
Noun

role and space of a species within an ecosystem.

political science
Noun

study of political systems and the structure and conduct of governments.

population
Noun

total number of people or organisms in a particular area.

promote
Verb

to encourage or help.

resource
Noun

available supply of materials, goods, or services. Resources can be natural or human.

Noun

large stream of flowing fresh water.

river management
Noun

the art and science of controlling the flow, path, and power of rivers.

science
Noun

knowledge focused on facts based on observation, identification, description, investigation, and explanation.

security
Noun

safety or stability.

solace
Noun

something that gives comfort or respite.

sustainable
Adjective

able to be continued at the same rate for a long period of time.

sustainable development
Noun

human construction, growth, and consumption that can be maintained with minimal damage to the natural environment.

technique
Noun

method of doing something.

transportation
Noun

movement of people or goods from one place to another.

undergraduate
noun, adjective

having to do with the first (bachelor's) degree earned in college or university.

upstream
Adjective

toward an elevated part of a flow of fluid, or place where the fluid passed earlier.

Ur
Noun

one of the earliest cities in the world, established as an urban center on the Euphrates River and the Persian Gulf as early as 3000 BCE.

water
Noun

chemical compound that is necessary for all forms of life.

water footprint
Noun

total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community.

Noun

entire river system or an area drained by a river and its tributaries.

water stress
Noun

situation faced by a nation or community when the amount of available water is less than 1,700 cubic meters per person.

Noun

area of land covered by shallow water or saturated by water.