Illustration by Mary Crooks
  • Malcolm wrote 1997’s Days of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the American Nation. He is currently finishing a book about French involvement in the Gold Rush that will be called A Good Voyage, A Quick Fortune and a Prompt Return: France, the French and the California Gold Rush.


    Malcolm says that when he was seven or eight years old, his family spent a summer in Leadville, Colorado. That experience left Malcolm, who grew up in Massachusetts, with a lingering interest in the American West. “Somehow, that summer always stuck with me,” he says.

    Malcolm’s father grew up on a ranch in Aspen, Colorado, at the turn of the century. The stories about Aspen that Malcolm’s father told him as a child spurred Malcolm to write his 2000 book Aspen: The History of a Silver Mining Town, 1879–1893. “When I was growing up in the family, he talked about the ranch and growing up there,” Malcolm says. “That’s how I got interested in Aspen, and that’s how I ended up writing a book about it.”

    There was no one else in Malcolm’s family or community who shared a similar passion for history. “I guess I was the pioneer,” he says.


    Malcolm says that the most invigorating aspect of his work is trying to find a new perspective on historical subjects. “When I wrote about the California Gold Rush, a lot had already been written about it,” he says. “What I realized in reading a lot of stuff and thinking about it was that there were other ways of thinking about it. The other ways are what is exciting about it.”


    “The most demanding part about the work is doing it on a continual basis. I mean, I write every day. This is what you have to do over an extended period of time. You just have to discipline yourself to set up a writing schedule.”


    “Geography is landscape. To carry it further, it’s the impact of landscape on human occupation and vice versa. That is to say, the impact that human occupation has on the landscape, of which California is a good example.”

    Malcolm admits that a lot of his research is about understanding how geography affected historical events. For instance, the winter weather in the Sierra Nevada, where the California Gold Rush occurred, temporarily halted the extraction of gold. “These landforms where mining took place turned out to have an important impact on the mining experience, because it meant that mining was something that took place eight months a year, not 12 months,” he says.

    Malcolm suggests learning about landscape and climate, along with history, so that you can see how those elements affect human experience in letters and diaries.


    Malcolm says that PBS’s American Experience television series is “a great introduction to a great range of historical issues.”

    He also recommends that families learn more about the California Gold Rush by planning a trip on California State Route 49. “It runs through all of the gold towns, and most of the towns have little museums,” he says.

    Historian: Dr. Malcolm Rohrbough

    Real-World Geography: How people use geography and the geographic perspective in their everyday lives and real-world careers.

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    American West Noun

    U.S. states west of the Missisippi River.

    aspect Noun

    view or interpretation.

    California Gold Rush Noun

    (1848-1855) worldwide immigration to California following the discovery of gold.

    climate Noun

    all weather conditions for a given location over a period of time.

    Encyclopedic Entry: climate
    continual Adjective

    ongoing or repeating frequently.

    diary Noun

    personal journal of everyday events.

    discipline Verb

    to train or control.

    emeritus Adjective

    retired, but maintaining the title of a former profession.

    extend Verb

    to enlarge or continue.

    extract Verb

    to pull out.

    fortune Noun

    a lot of money.

    gold Noun

    valuable chemical element with the symbol Au.

    gold town Noun

    community that is economically dependent on the gold mining industry.

    halt Verb

    to stop.

    historian Noun

    person who studies events and ideas of the past.

    invigorating Adjective

    energizing or exciting.

    landform Noun

    specific natural feature on the Earth's surface.

    Encyclopedic Entry: landform
    landscape Noun

    the geographic features of a region.

    Encyclopedic Entry: landscape
    lingering Adjective

    remaining, not going away.

    mining Noun

    process of extracting ore from the Earth.

    museum Noun

    space where valuable works of art, history, or science are kept for public view.

    occupation Noun

    job, work, or career.

    perspective Noun

    representation of volume or depth on a flat surface.

    pioneer Noun

    person who is among the first to do something.

    professor Noun

    highest-ranking teacher at a college or university.

    prompt Adjective

    on time or quickly.

    ranch Noun

    large farm on which livestock are raised.

    schedule Noun

    set of time tables or deadlines for appointments or completion of tasks.

    spur Verb

    to encourage or move forward.

    turn of the century Noun

    time period, usually ten or twenty years, before and after a new century.