In 2010, Professor Joseph Hupy was in South Vietnam trying to map the site of the Battle of Khe Sanh, one of the most infamous battles of the Vietnam War. 
 
Attempting to survey the land, Hupy found his body covered in land leeches and cut by elephant grass, a tall tropical plant with razor-sharp edges. 
 
“It was kind of like that a-ha moment where oh boy, there has to be a different way of doing this and here it is.”
 
Hupy’s “different way of doing things” was to map the land from above, rather than from ground-level. He quickly learned that using LIDAR, a remote sensing technology used to make high-resolution maps, was too expensive and probably impossible to use in rural Vietnam. 
 
What if he just used inexpensive, easily available technology to get the information he needed?
 
Hi-Res, Low Cost
 
Hupy brought the idea back to Wisconsin, where he is a geography and anthropology professor at University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. He found that with digital cameras, GPS receivers, and a basic unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), you can get lots of information without spending lots of money. (Another name for a UAV is drone.) 
 
“It is really this perfect storm of all of these different phenomena that have come together,” Hupy says. “Technology has gotten so cheap and so lightweight that now you can start putting that on a flying platform . . . The other factor coming into this is the fact that GPS technology has come so far that now you can have a fairly small GPS unit communicating with more or less a centralized computer. It is basically your autopilot motherboard.”
 
Hupy was inspired to act. He formed Hupy UAS in 2011 with his wife, Christina. (UAS stands for “unmanned aerial systems.) The company utilizes everything from balloons and kites to rotocopters and fixed-wing UAVs to gather images or data from above. 
 
“It can be as low-tech as putting a camera on a string on a balloon or it can be as high-tech as putting these cameras on these crazy planes that have solar panels,” he says.
 
Hupy has also been introducing his students to the possibilities of UAV technology. 
 
“On my end, I’m trying to give students that introduction of you can take really, really high-resolution imagery with crazy details for not a lot of money,” he says. “You don’t need satellites, and you don’t need to send that manned airplane from the airport.”
 
Hupy says that fixed-wing UAVs really aren’t that different from the radio-controlled airplanes that you can buy in hobby shops. 
 
“What has happened is that the world of RC [radio controlled] and the world of what was a true UAV have crossed so much that there is this weird grey area,” he says. “RC is radio controlled, so you have your radio controller and you are flying that as a pilot. What turns an RC airplane into a true unmanned aerial vehicle is the ability for it to rely on its autopilot functionality.”
 
Uses for UAVs
 
Hupy and his new company recently got to employ some of this technology while doing some work at the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake near Ridgecrest, California. There, they used a fixed-wing UAV, which resembles an RC plane, to survey the area. Using the small flying device, the team was able to locate objects with an amazing three-centimeter accuracy.
 
Such UAV technology could assist the military in pinpointing the presence of desert tortoises. Desert tortoises are a threatened species; if discovered, the military would halt operations in the area. 
 
“What they have done traditionally is they have sent people out on foot,” Hupy says. “They walk around on foot, and they just look for these [desert tortoise] holes. It is incredibly inefficient, and it is incredibly expensive. In this imagery we gathered, you can actually see the desert tortoise holes.”
 
The car insurance industry is another place UAVs may have practical uses. 
 
“When there is an accident, right now in the insurance industry, they have to send out those people on the ground,” he continues. “They have to measure out, with their tape measures, all the different stuff with the accident. If they were able to shoot up this rotocopter [a small helicopter-like UAV], within five minutes they could take pictures and go back in the office and have the software do it [all the work] in minutes.”
 
UAVs could also be used by home insurance companies after tornadoes, to survey the number of damaged buildings. The technology could help eliminate insurance fraud
 
“You could fly a UAV over the tornado’s path and save millions upon millions of dollars,” Hupy says.
 
Irrigation districts are another industry that could benefit from the use of UAVs. Specifically, the aerial vessels could help companies assess how well their irrigation systems are working. 
 
“What I can do is I can send up this Y-6 [a type of rotocopter] to take a couple of quick photos and then provide for them in infrared so you can see vegetation health and how effective their irrigation system is,” Hupy says.
 
Hupy is also excited by the possibility of doing smaller projects with just a camera and a balloon or a kite. For instance, say a community garden organizer or a small farmer wants some images of their land from above. 
 
“Take a balloon,” he says. “Make a rig and attach the camera. Put it up in the sky and take some pictures.”
 
As an educator, Hupy emphasizes that students interested in UAVs should focus on knowing what to do with the data once it is collected. He notes that the cost of producing UAVs is low, but that there is a real need for people who can think spatially and know how to use geospatial computer software including geographic information systems (GIS) to process the information collected from the UAVs.
Data Drones
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are sometimes called drones.
Flight Plan
Hupy is a big supporter of UAVs but he notes that they are not always the best tools for the job. “I do want to stay away from the notion that UAVs are always better than manned aircraft, because over and over again, you can send out a manned aircraft—it depends on the resolution that you want—but a manned aircraft can still gather relatively cheap imagery if you are dealing with a very large area.”
Fun Flights
Hupy describes how students can do a fun and easy project with a simple unmanned aerial vehicle. 
 
“They would need an open space. For that high school class, get that kite and get that rig and get that cheap little Canon camera. And once a week, fly above your school grounds, fly up above that garden plot or whatever and then do a time sequence to where you can see the snow melt, you can see the grass greening, you can see the plants coming up in the garden. You can time lapse that, and you can turn it into a movie. And you can have a really cool project.”
accuracy
Noun

condition of being exact or correct.

aerial
Adjective

existing, moving, growing, or operating in the air.

Noun

science of the origin, development, and culture of human beings.

assess
Verb

to evaluate or determine the amount of.

assist
Noun

to help or support.

battle
Noun

violent encounter during a conflict.

community garden
Noun

single piece of land cultivated and maintained by a group of people.

computer
Noun

device designed to access data, perform prescribed tasks at high speed, and display the results.

data
Plural Noun

(singular: datum) information collected during a scientific study.

drone
Noun

unmanned aircraft that can be guided remotely.

employ
Verb

to hire or use.

expensive
Adjective

very costly.

factor
Noun

element contributing to an event or outcome.

fixed-wing
Adjective

having to do with aircraft whose lift is generated by speed and the movement of air over its wings, which are unmoving and fixed to the fuselage of the aircraft.

fraud
Noun

lie, trick, or misrepresentation played to gain goods and services.

functional
Adjective

usable.

Noun

any system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on the Earth's surface.

Noun

study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.

geospatial
Adjective

having to do with geography and location.

GPS receiver
Noun

device that gets radio signals from satellites in orbit above Earth in order to calculate a precise location.

halt
Verb

to stop.

hobby
Noun

activity pursued for fun and personal fulfillment, not as a job.

industry
Noun

activity that produces goods and services.

inefficient
Adjective

not able to perform a task well.

infamous
Adjective

having a very bad reputation.

infrared radiation
Noun

part of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than microwaves.

insurance
Noun

money paid in good health to guarantee financial or physical health if injury or damage occurs.

Noun

watering land, usually for agriculture, by artificial means.

leech
Noun

carnivorous or bloodsucking worm.

LIDAR
adjective, noun

(Light Detection and Ranging) method of detecting distant objects and determining their position, velocity, volume, or other characteristic by analysis of pulsed laser light reflected from their surfaces. Also called LADAR.

military
Noun

armed forces.

motherboard
Noun

main circuit board in an electronic device, such as a computer, which may contain sockets that accept additional boards ("daughter-boards").

phenomena
Plural Noun

(singular: phenomenon) any observable occurrence or feature.

remote sensing
Noun

methods of information-gathering about the Earth's surface from a distance.

resemble
Verb

to look like.

satellite
Noun

object that orbits around something else. Satellites can be natural, like moons, or made by people.

site
Noun

specific place where something is located.

software
Noun

electronic programs of code that tell computers what to do.

solar panel
Noun

group of cells that converts sunlight into electricity.

survey
Noun

a study or analysis of characteristics of an area or a population.

technology
Noun

the science of using tools and complex machines to make human life easier or more profitable.

threatened species
Noun

organism that may soon become endangered.

tornado
Noun

a violently rotating column of air that forms at the bottom of a cloud and touches the ground.

tropical
Adjective

existing in the tropics, the latitudes between the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the south.

UAV
Noun

(unmanned aerial vehicle) aircraft without a human pilot or other technician onboard.

vegetation
Noun

all the plant life of a specific place.

Vietnam War
Noun

(1956-1975) civil war in Vietnam, with the North Vietnamese supported by pro-communist nations and the South Vietnamese supported by anti-communist nations, which resulted in a northern (communist) victory and a split nation.