Volcanic lightning has very little to do with tectonic activity, and everything to do with everyday physics.
Volcanic lightning is not formed deep in the Earth. It only forms in a volcanic plume, the cylinder-shaped column of volcanic ash emitted by some erupting volcanoes. Volcanoes that lack a thick volcanic plume usually lack volcanic lightning. Volcanoes in Hawaii, for instance, are more likely to eject fluid lava fountains than thick plumes of ash. These volcanoes rarely have volcanic lightning.
The tiny particles that make up a volcanic plume are tightly compressed beneath a volcano. The airy atmosphere aboveground, however, is much less dense. This change in density contributes to volcanic lightning.
As densely packed particles are violently ejected in a volcanic plume, they rub against each other. This interaction is called friction. Through friction, ash particles gain and lose electrons—they become electrically charged. As charged particles ascend the less-dense volcanic plume, the plume experiences charge separation. Positively charged particles become increasingly separated from negatively charged particles.
When the charge separation becomes too great for air to resist the flow of electricity, lightning tears through the volcanic plume to connect the positively and negatively charged particles.
You don’t need an actual volcano to get an idea of how volcanic lightning works. Friction creates charged particles when you rub a balloon across your hair or your socked feet across a carpet. You’re covering the balloon or yourself with negative particles. This imbalance of electrons is called static electricity.
Eventually, you come into contact with something—another person or a metal doorknob, for instance—that is not electrically charged. The static “shock” you receive is the lightning-fast discharge of electrons.
to go up.
layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.
building of space between charged particles. Sometimes called static electricity.
to press together in a smaller space.
tube or long, circular object.
having parts or molecules that are packed closely together.
to eject or get rid of.
to get rid of or throw out.
set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.
negatively charged subatomic particle.
to give off or send out.
to explode or suddenly eject material.
material that is able to flow and change shape.
force produced by rubbing one thing against another.
phenomenon where lava is forcefully but not violently ejected from a volcano through a fissure or vent.
small piece of material.
study of the physical processes of the universe, especially the interaction of matter and energy.
motionless electronic charge that builds up on a material.
movement of tectonic plates resulting in geologic activity such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
strong, destructive force.
fragments of lava less than 2 millimeters across.
bolts of electricity produced in a volcanic plume. Also called a dirty thunderstorm.
cylinder-shaped structure of volcanic ash and gas emitted by an explosive volcanic eruption. Also called an eruption column.
an opening in the Earth's crust, through which lava, ash, and gases erupt, and also the cone built by eruptions.