1. According to U.S. Census data, what were the three most populous states in 1790?

The states with the greatest populations were Virginia (747,610), Pennsylvania (434,373), and North Carolina (393,751).

2. What were the three most populous categories listed in the 1790 Census?

The categories with the most number of people counted were: "free white females" (1,541,263); "free white males of 16 years and up" (807,094); and "free white males under 16 years" (791,850).

3. Which states had more than 100,000 slaves?

Four states had more than 100,000 slaves in 1790: Virginia (292,627); South Carolina (107,094); Maryland (103,036); and North Carolina (100,572).

4. Which states had the fewest number of slaves?

In 1790, both Maine and Massachusetts had no slaves.

5. Which state had the fewest "free white females"?

Delaware counted only 22,384 "free white females."

6. What percentage of Georgia's total population was enslaved in 1790?

35%

This was calculated by dividing Georgia's slave population (29,264) by its total population (82,548).

7. What percentage of Maine's total population was "free white females"?

49%

This was calculated by dividing the number of "free white females" in Maine (46,870) by Maine's total population (96,540).

8. What is the difference between the number of states with a greater population of "free white males 16 years and up" and "free white males under 16 years"?

Just two.

This was calculated in three parts. First, count the number of states with a greater population of "free white males 16 years and up." (9) Then, count the number of states with a greater population of "free white males under 16 years." (7) Finally, subtract the second number from the first: 9-7.

9. What percentage of New York's total population consisted of "free white males"?

48%

This was calculated in two steps. First, the populations of New York's "free white males of 16 years and up" (83,700) and "free white males under 16 years" (78,122) were added. Then, that number (161,822) was divided by New York's total population (340,120).

10. What do you think "all other free persons" meant to Census-takers in 1790?

"All other free persons" mostly meant free blacks, or African Americans who were not enslaved. It also included Native Americans and immigrants from Asia.

black

person of African descent.

Noun

program of a nation, state, or other region that counts the population and usually gives its characteristics, such as age and gender.

enslaved person
Noun

person who is owned by another person or group of people.

free state
Noun

nation or country that outlaws slavery.

population
Noun

total number of people or organisms in a particular area.

populous

containing a large number of inhabitants.

slave state
Noun

nation or country where slavery is legal.

Noun

count of everyone in the U.S., conducted every 10 years.

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