The so-called "women's liberation movement" (women's lib) is sometimes called "second-wave feminism," recognizing the second major women's-rights movement in the West.
First-wave feminism focused mostly on voting rights and property rights for women. Second-wave feminism, emerging during World War II, embraced a broader set of civil rights.
Civil rights supported by second-wave feminism included securing professional opportunities and economic equality for women in the workplace, protection for victims of domestic violence, and improving academic opportunities for women in schools and universities. More controversial issues supported by second-wave feminism included ensuring access to safe and affordable family planning; greater recognition and opportunities for women of color; greater recognition and opportunities for lesbians, bisexuals, and transgender women; and diversifying images of women in popular culture.
1972, the year this photo was taken, was a watershed year for second-wave feminism. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was approved by both houses of Congress and endorsed by President Richard Nixon. Congress passed Title IX, which aimed to end sex discrimination in high-school and college sports. The first shelter for battered women opened. Shirley Chisholm became the first woman (and first African American) to win presidential primaries.
Elements in this photograph also call attention to criticism of second-wave feminism. Media attention to the movement mostly focused on white women, many of whom came from the sort of privileged background associated with elite private schools like Smith College.
"Third-wave feminism" emerged in the 1980s. This movement includes greater leadership from people of color, lesbians, and transgendered women. It focuses much more on individual achievement; support for survivors of domestic violence; representation in and production of popular culture; and sexual expression.
Discuss "women's lib" with students using information above. (This information does not appear in the "Student" version of this media spotlight.)
- Discuss the first two questions in the "Questions" tab, which use the photograph to investigate goals and critiques of "second-wave feminism."
"We've come a long way, baby. From Adam's rib to Women's Lib" reads the sign carried by one of the graduates. Using questions 3-5 in the "Questions" tab, help students understand the references used in the sign.
person or thing having to do with school, particularly college or university education.
set of fundamental freedoms guaranteed to all individuals, such as participation in the political system, ability to own property, and due process and equal protection under the law.
legislative branch of the government, responsible for making laws. The U.S. Congress has two bodies, the House of Representatives and the Senate.
questionable or leading to argument.
abuse directed toward someone living in the same home or household.
having to do with money.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
(1923-1982) failed amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would prohibit legal discrimination based on sex.
control of the number of children in a family and the intervals between them.
(~1800-~1939) civil rights movement focused on securing voting rights and property rights for women.
woman who is attracted to other women.
goods, services, ideas, and patterns of their use in a population.
benefit or special right.
goods or materials (including land) owned by someone.
(~1939-~1989) civil rights movement focusing on securing economic, political, social, and academic rights for women and girls. Also called "women's lib" or the "women's liberation movement."
(1924-2005) American civil rights leader and politician.
(~1989-present) civil-rights movement focused on combating inequalities women face as a result of age, gender, race, sexual orientation, economic status, or level of education.
(Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972) American legislation prohibiting discrimination in all educational programs receiving federal funds. Also called Title 9 and the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act.
person whose gender identity does not match their physical sex.
issues surrounding the legal right and ability to campaign and cast a vote in political elections.
having to do with the developed nations of Europe and North America.