Despite resembling plants, being stationary and colorful, sponges (phylum: Porifera) are actually animals—the most ancient lineage of all animals. Largely hollow, sponges filter feed by using tiny flagella to pump water throughout their structure, from which they gather nutrients and oxygen. Some sponges form mutualisms with plants and animals, where the sponges can provide habitats for other species to thrive.
As marine species, sponges are sensitive to many climate change-related challenges, such as rising temperatures and ocean acidification. They are also susceptible to pollution, such as agricultural runoff. Even turbid water from human activity on the ocean floor can interfere with their ability to filter feed. Though found worldwide, decreasing numbers of sponges will put a strain on the many animals that use them for habitat, protection, and food.
gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet.
aquatic animal that strains nutrients from water.
relationship between organisms of different species, in which both organisms benefit from the association.
decrease in the ocean's pH levels, caused primarily by increased carbon dioxide. Ocean acidification threatens corals and shellfish.
overflow of fluid from a farm or industrial factory.
cloudiness or lack of transparency.