The oncilla (Leopardus guttulus), also called little spotted cat or little tiger cat, is one of the smallest wildcat species of Central and South America. Oncillas’ soft fur is grayish with dark rosettes, and their tails are ringed, providing camouflage in the speckled light of a tropical forest. Often mistaken for ocelots or margays, the smaller oncillas have larger ears, a more narrow face, and a slimmer body than these relatives.
Oncillas are excellent climbers and mostly hunt for prey at night. They eat small mammals, lizards, birds, eggs, and invertebrates. With its stealthy cat behavior, a healthy oncilla can pounce its prey and mostly avoid becoming dinner for other wild predators
Oncillas have been observed in a variety of forest habitats, from the coast to the cloud forests at approximately 3,200 meters (about 10,000 feet) above sea level. They live in areas from central Brazil and Peru north into Costa Rica.
Despite their flexibility in where they live and what they eat, and also their lack of natural predators, oncilla populations have been hit hard by their main threat, human activity. Oncillas are listed as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) list. Loss of habitat through deforestation, road building, and expansion of agriculture has fragmented the environments where they live. Poaching and hunting are also a problem. According to studies in the 1970s and 1980s, oncillas were one of the most hunted cats in South America. Despite limits on hunting oncillas today, poaching−for the fur trade and to protect livestock−is causing a decline in the cat’s population.
Cat conservation organizations work to protect these species, which, like all of the big cats, are important to their ecosystem balance and health.
the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).
to hide or disguise by blending in to surroundings. Also called cryptic coloration.
management of a natural resource to prevent exploitation, destruction, or neglect.
destruction or removal of forests and their undergrowth.
community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.
having to do with genes, inherited characteristics or heredity.
to reproduce with members of a closed population (where genetic material from outside groups is excluded.) Or, to breed with members of another breed or group.
small, spotted cat (Felis tigrina) native to Central and South America.
spotted American wildcat.
to hunt, trap, or fish illegally.
animal that hunts other animals for food.
animal that is hunted and eaten by other animals.
rose-shaped patch of color on the skin or fur of some animals, such as cheetahs and jaguars.
scientist who studies the description, identification, naming, and classification of organisms.
existing in the tropics, the latitudes between the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the south.