The Iowa Pleistocene snail (Discus macclintocki) has been around for a very long time—since the last Ice Age, or the Pleistocene, to be specific. Fossilized shells show the snails were once widespread in the U.S. Midwest. They currently have populations at about 36 sites in Iowa and Illinois.
The small land snail is only about 6 millimeters (1/4-inch) in diameter—smaller than a dime. Its tightly coiled, dome-shaped outer shell is brown or greenish white. It lives in an unusual, temperature-controlled habitat called an algific talus slope. The rocky hillsides are cool and moist because of underground ice. Chilly air and water escape through cracks in the slope. Ground temperatures get no colder than 14° F (−10° C) in the winter and no warmer than 50° F (10° C) in the summer. That’s just the way the snails like it.
The snails live in leaf litter on the slopes, feeding on fallen birch, maple, and dogwood leaves. During winter, they burrow underground and hibernate.
Despite surviving for so long, the Iowa Pleistocene snail may be in jeopardy. Climate change poses a long-term threat because it could impact the steady, cool temperatures and moist environment the snail needs to survive. In addition, logging, quarrying, road building, and other human-related activities damage the snail’s habitat. Such activities risk crushing individual snails. Disturbing the land also fills in the cracks that allow the cool air and water to flow from the underground ice.
Since 1978, the snail has been on the U.S. endangered species list. The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service is working with state, county, and private conservation agencies to protect the snail.
When was the Pleistocene?
How do human activities, such as logging, quarrying, and road building, impact the Iowa Pleistocene snail?
Some of the algific talus slopes where the Iowa Pleistocene snail live are part of the Driftless Area National Wildlife Refuge. How might that help the snails?
Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry algific talus slope Noun
ecosystem characterized by loose rock in a cool environment.
climate change Noun
gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet.
Encyclopedic Entry: climate change conservation Noun
management of a natural resource to prevent exploitation, destruction, or neglect.
Encyclopedic Entry: conservation endangered species Noun
organism threatened with extinction.
Encyclopedic Entry: endangered species fossilize Verb
to become a solid mineral.
environment where an organism lives throughout the year or for shorter periods of time.
Encyclopedic Entry: habitat hibernate Verb
to reduce activity almost to sleeping in order to conserve food and energy, usually in winter.
ice age Noun
long period of cold climate where glaciers cover large parts of the Earth. The last ice age peaked about 20,000 years ago. Also called glacial age.
industry engaged in cutting down trees and moving the wood to sawmills.
epoch lasting from about 2 million years ago to 12,000 years ago.
site where stone is mined.
Encyclopedic Entry: quarry relic Noun
memento or surviving object of the past.