Nanoscience combines science, engineering, and technology to study matter and processes at the nanoscale. The nanoscale is based on the nanometer, a unit of length equivalent to one billionth (10-9) of a meter. Nanotechnology can be applied across all fields of science, including chemistry, geology, biology, physics, engineering, and materials science. By working at the atomic level, scientists can alter the physical, chemical, biological, and optical properties of matter.
Nanotechnology applications are highly varied and have impacted a number of scientific and industrial sectors. More than 600 nanotechnology-based consumer products are currently on the market, ranging from enhanced sunscreens and stronger, lighter sports equipment to antimicrobial and stain-proof fabrics. Nanotechnology has led to the development of increasingly smaller electronics and computer components, including processors and batteries. Other developing applications include sustainable energy devices and satellites that are more efficient, food products that are tastier and more nutritious, and water treatment methods that remove harmful pollutants.
One of the most promising aspects of nanotechnology, both now and in the future, is nanomedicine. Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the way medicine is practiced and how humans approach their own healthcare. Nanomedicine technologies currently being used include enhanced images for medical diagnostics, procedures for finding clogged arteries and detecting the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease, focused treatments for different forms of cancer, and the creation of artificial tissues to repair diseased organs and nerves. As with any new technology or field of study, it is important to examine the potential for unintended consequences, especially as they relate to human and environmental health.