• A 100-year old chocolate bar sold for nearly $700.
    The high-priced sweet took a long, strange journey before reaching the auction table, from bustling English factories to the barren Antarctic landscape, and back again.
    The bar was originally part of a 1,588-kilogram (3,500-pound) loaf of cocoa and chocolate that accompanied legendary British explorer Robert Falcon Scott on his 1904 expedition to Antarctica.
    The expedition—nicknamed the “Discovery Expedition”—took the research vessel RRS Discovery from the Isle of Wight to the southern tip of Africa, then on to New Zealand, before reaching McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Today, the stately, three-masted ship is a tourist attraction in the harbor of Dundee, Scotland, where it was built.
    Members of the Discovery Expedition constructed a sturdy, square storage depot on Ross Island, not far from what is today McMurdo Station, the busiest and most populated area in Antarctica. Scott and other expedition leaders—including the explorers Edward Wilson and Ernest Shackleton—left tons of food and supplies at “Discovery Hut” while they explored the continent and conducted scientific research.
    The chocolate sat in cold storage at Discovery Hut until 1907. At that time, Shackleton’s Nimrod Expedition used Discovery Hut as a storage depot while attempting to reach the South Pole. (They failed. The South Pole was not successfully navigated until Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen led an expedition there in 1911.)
    Leaders of the Nimrod Expedition brought back chocolate and other supplies as souvenirs of their perilous participation in the “Heroic Age” of Antarctic exploration. 
    The London auction house Christie’s held an unusual “Polar Auction” in September 2001. A diary chronicling Shackleton’s amazing Endurance Expedition of 1915 sold for $153,227. A blubber-stained photo of the Endurance itself sold for $21,900. And a 10-centimeter (4-inch) chocolate bar, left by the Discovery and rescued by the Nimrod, sold for $686.
    • The Discovery Expedition was funded primarily by Britain’s Royal Geographic Society and Royal Society. The British government provided a matching donation. The total cost was about $140,000—about $4 million, adjusted for inflation in 2015.
    • The Discovery Expedition was well-equipped. The crew ate from specially commissioned Royal Doulton china and silverware marked with the expedition’s crest. Cadbury’s donated 1.75 tons of chocolate and cocoa, Colman’s supplied 9 tons of flour and 1.5 tons of mustard, and a pharmaceutical company provided thousands of gallons of lime juice—to prevent crew members from developing scurvy.
    • Discovery Hut, which Ernest Shackleton described as “a most useful pied-a-terre for the start of a Southern journey,” was naturally buried by snow and ice following Shackleton’s final visit in 1917. In 1956, members of the U.S. “Operation Deep Freeze” project removed the snow and ice, and found the structure and its stores remarkably intact. Today, Discovery Hut is one of 92 Historic Sites and Monuments in Antarctica.
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    Antarctica Noun

    Earth's fifth-largest continental landmass.

    Encyclopedic Entry: Antarctica
    auction Noun

    sale at which goods or services are sold to the highest bidder.

    barren Adjective


    blubber Noun

    thick layer of fat under the skin of marine mammals.

    Encyclopedic Entry: blubber
    bustling Adjective


    chocolate Noun

    food made from the roasted and ground seeds of the cacao plant, usually sweetened.

    cocoa Noun

    powder made from the roasted seeds of the cacao plant, used to make chocolate.

    continent Noun

    one of the seven main land masses on Earth.

    Encyclopedic Entry: continent
    depot Noun

    place where supplies are stored for later distribution.

    expedition Noun

    journey with a specific purpose, such as exploration.

    harbor Noun

    part of a body of water deep enough for ships to dock.

    Encyclopedic Entry: harbor
    landscape Noun

    the geographic features of a region.

    Encyclopedic Entry: landscape
    mast Noun

    tall, pole-like structure rising above the top of a ship, where sails and other rigging are held.

    navigate Verb

    to plan and direct the course of a journey.

    perilous Adjective


    research vessel Noun

    ship or boat equipped to carry out scientific experiments or collect data.

    Robert Falcon Scott Noun

    (1868-1912) British explorer who led two expeditions to the Antarctic.

    sound Noun

    body of water, larger than a bay, partially surrounded by land.

    South Pole Noun

    fixed point that, along with the North Pole, forms the axis on which the Earth spins.

    Encyclopedic Entry: South Pole
    souvenir Noun

    object kept to remind someone of an event.

    stately Adjective

    dignified and imposing.

    storage Noun

    space for keeping materials for use at a later time.