The Nile River has provided fertile land, transportation, food, and freshwater to Egypt for more than 5,000 years. Today, 95% of Egypt’s population continues to live along its banks.Where does the Nile begin? Where does it end? Watch this video, from Nat Geo WILD’s “Destination Wild” series, to find out. For an even deeper look at the Nile, use our vocabulary list and explore our “geo-tour” of the Nile to understand the geography of the river and answer the questions in the Questions tab.
Where is the source, or headwaters, of the Nile River?
Can you find a waterfall on the Nile River?
What types of wetlands do you think the Nile supports?
Can you identify a tributary of the Nile River?
Where is a major confluence on the Nile?
Are there rapids on the Nile?
Is there a dam on the Nile? Where?
How has the Nile’s flood plain influenced agriculture in the region?
Can you identify a major port on the Nile River?
What is one theory about how the Nile delta got its name?
What is the “Nile fan”?
Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry agriculture Noun
the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).
Encyclopedic Entry: agriculture alluvial fan Noun
fan-shaped deposit of eroded material, usually sediment and sand.
Encyclopedic Entry: alluvial fan bank Noun
a slope of land adjoining a body of water, or a large elevated area of the sea floor.
brackish water Noun
salty water, usually a mixture of seawater and freshwater.
waterfall or section of whitewater rapids.
place where two rivers join and flow together.
structure built across a river or other waterway to control the flow of water.
the flat, low-lying plain that sometimes forms at the mouth of a river from deposits of sediments.
Encyclopedic Entry: delta flood Noun
overflow of a body of water onto land.
Encyclopedic Entry: flood flood plain Noun
flat area alongside a stream or river that is subject to flooding.
Encyclopedic Entry: flood plain freshwater marsh Noun
wetland ecosystem dominated by grasses that develops around lakes or rivers.
steep-sided opening through a mountain ridge.
Encyclopedic Entry: gap headwater Noun
source of a river.
highlands Plural Noun
plateau or elevated region of land.
body of water surrounded by land.
Encyclopedic Entry: lake mountain Noun
landmass that forms as tectonic plates interact with each other.
place where a river empties its water. Usually rivers enter another body of water at their mouths.
Encyclopedic Entry: mouth nutrient Noun
substance an organism needs for energy, growth, and life.
Encyclopedic Entry: nutrient port Noun
place on a body of water where ships can tie up or dock and load and unload cargo.
Encyclopedic Entry: port rapids Noun
areas of fast-flowing water in a river or stream that is making a slight descent.
Encyclopedic Entry: rapids reservoir Noun
natural or man-made lake.
Encyclopedic Entry: reservoir river Noun
large stream of flowing fresh water.
Encyclopedic Entry: river sediment Noun
solid material transported and deposited by water, ice, and wind.
Encyclopedic Entry: sediment silt Noun
small sediment particles.
Encyclopedic Entry: silt source Noun
beginning of a stream, river, or other flow of water.
Encyclopedic Entry: source stream Noun
body of flowing water.
Encyclopedic Entry: stream swamp Noun
land permanently saturated with water and sometimes covered with it.
Encyclopedic Entry: swamp tributary Noun
stream that feeds, or flows, into a larger stream.
Encyclopedic Entry: tributary waterfall Noun
flow of water descending steeply over a cliff. Also called a cascade.
Encyclopedic Entry: waterfall wetland Noun
area of land covered by shallow water or saturated by water.
Encyclopedic Entry: wetland