The Mauryan Empire, which formed around 321 B.C.E. and ended in 185 B.C.E., was the first pan-Indian empire, an empire that covered most of the Indian region. It spanned across central and northern India as well as over parts of modern-day Iran.

The Mauryan Empire’s first leader, Chandragupta Maurya, started consolidating land as Alexander the Great’s power began to wane. Alexander’s death in 323 B.C.E. left a large power vacuum, and Chandragupta took advantage, gathering an army and overthrowing the Nanda power in Magadha, in present-day eastern India, marking the start of the Mauryan Empire. After crowning himself king, Chandragupta took additional lands through force and by forming alliances.

Chandragupta’s chief minister Kautilya, sometimes called Chanakya, advised Chandragupta and contributed to the empire’s legacy. In addition to being a political strategist, Kautilya is also known for writing the Arthashastra, a treatise about leadership and government. The Arthashastra describes how a state should organize its economy and maintain power. Chandragupta’s government closely resembled the government described in the Arthashastra. One notable aspect of the Arthashastra was its focus on spies. Kautilya recommended the king have large networks of informants to work as a surveillance force for the ruler. The focus on deception reveals a pragmatic, and borderline cynical, view of human nature.

Bindusara, Chandragupta’s son, assumed the throne around 300 B.C.E. He kept the empire running smoothly while maintaining its lands. Bindusara’s son, Ashoka, was the third leader of the Mauryam Empire. Ashoka left his mark on history by erecting large stone pillars inscribed with edicts that he issued. After leading a bloody campaign against Kalinga (a region on the central-eastern coast of India), Ashoka reevaluated his commitment to expanding the empire and instead turned to Buddhism and its tenet of nonviolence. Many of his edicts encouraged people to give up violence and live in peace with each other—two important Buddhist principals.   

After Ashoka’s death, his family continued to reign, but the empire began to break apart. The last of the Mauryas, Brihadratha, was assassinated by his commander in chief—a man named Pushyamrita who went on to found the Shunga Dynasty—in 185 B.C.E.

 

Mauryan Empire

The masterfully sculpted Ashoka pillars tower over the municipal garden in Panjim, Goa, India. These are one of the last remaining relics from the Mauryan Empire. 

Noun

religion based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha).

dynasty
Noun

series of rulers from one family or group.

edict
Noun

an official ruling, given out by a someone who holds power

empire
Noun

group of nations, territories or other groups of people controlled by a single, more powerful authority.

legacy
Noun

material, ideas, or history passed down or communicated by a person or community from the past.

Mauryan Empire
Noun

first pan-Indian empire (321–185 B.C.E.)

pragmatics
Noun

relation between signs or linguistic expressions and their users.

reign
Verb

to rule as a monarch.

treatise
Noun

argument in writing that includes a methodical discussion of facts involved in the conclusions reached