• Citizen science is the practice of public participation and collaboration in scientific research to increase scientific knowledge. Through citizen science, people share and contribute to data monitoring and collection programs. Usually this participation is done as an unpaid volunteer.

    Collaboration in citizen science involves scientists and researchers working with the public. Community-based groups may generate ideas and engage with scientists for advice, leadership, and program coordination. Interested volunteers, amateur scientists, students, and educators may network and promote new ideas to advance our understanding of the world.

    Scientists may create a citizen-science program to capture more or more widely spread data without spending additional funding. They often work with community groups that are already collecting such information, such as birders or weatherbugs, to expand their studies and databases.

    Volunteers have varying levels of expertise, from kids in their backyards to members of high school science clubs to amateur astronomers with sophisticated home equipment. Modern advances in technology make citizen science more accessible today than ever before. The success of any citizen science project depends on the establishment of a well-devised monitoring program and the dedication of its volunteers.

    Citizen-science projects may include wildlife-monitoring programs, online databases, visualization and sharing technologies, or other community efforts.


    Though citizen science is a relatively new term, people have been participating and contributing to scientific research for years.

    Wells Cooke, a member of the American Ornithologists’ Union, developed arguably one of the earliest formal citizen-science programs in the country in the late 1800s. Cooke began a program that looked at the patterns of bird migration. It expanded into one of the first government programs for birds—the North American Bird Phenology Program—and one that private citizens could join. A network of volunteers began collecting information about migratory bird patterns and population figures, and they recorded that information on cards. Today, those cards are being scanned and recorded into a public database for historical analysis.

    One of the oldest examples of citizen science is the Christmas Bird Count sponsored by the National Audubon Society. Since 1900, the organization has sponsored a bird count that runs from December 14 through January 5 each year. An experienced birder leads a group (called a circle) of volunteers as they collect information about local populations of birds. More than 2,000 such circles operate across the United States and Canada. This wildlife census informs bird conservation efforts.

    Use of Technology

    Historically, when professional scientists wanted to gather more information, they would use pre-existing citizen science networks of birders, weatherbugs, and other amateur groups. With the widespread availability of the Internet in the late 1990s, it became easier for people to share and contribute information, and the number of citizen-science programs increased.

    In the last few years, the field of citizen science has expanded even more rapidly with the development of smartphones, allowing more information to be shared through digital media.

    Armed with phones that have built-in GPS receivers, volunteers can readily provide geo-location information about species or situations in real time. New networks and communities of interested citizen scientists are created each day to learn more about the world and how we can contribute to understanding it.

    In the future, more phones could be outfitted with smart sensors, which would let people measure and record environmental data, such as air-quality levels and temperature readings.

    Citizen Science at National Geographic

    With the National Park Service, the National Geographic Society has sponsored hundred of bioblitzes. A bioblitz is an event that focuses on finding and identifying as many species as possible in a specific area over a short period of time. A bioblitz is also known as a biological inventory or biological census. The primary goal of a bioblitz is to get an overall count of the plants, animals, fungi, and other organisms that live in a place.

    The 2011, for instance, BioBlitz was held in Saguaro National Park, near Tucson, Arizona. More than 5,000 people combed the area. The 24-hour event added more than 400 species to park lists, including 190 species of invertebrates and 205 species of fungus previously unknown to the park. At least one species of bryophyte discovered was new to the park and potentially new to science. 

    Other Citizen Science Projects

    Citizen science projects cover a wide variety of topics, from astronomy to zoology.

    Climate and climate change are the focus of Project BudBurst. Project BudBurst is a network of people across the United States who monitor the leafing, flowering, and fruiting of plants. This project fosters collaboration among gardeners, scout troops, hikers, botanists, ecologists, government agencies, and educators to monitor climate change and its impacts on plants.

    BugGuide is an online community where naturalists share their photos and observations about a variety of creatures, including spiders and other insects. They use the in-house expertise of scientists and amateur experts to collect information and identify a diversity of bug species in the United States and Canada.

    FrogWatch USA is the leading citizen-science program of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. This program allows groups and individuals to learn about wetlands in their communities by reporting the mating calls of local frogs and toads.

    The Alice Ferguson Foundation’s Trash Free Potomac Watershed Initiative is a citizen science project with a narrower focus than national efforts such as FrogWatch USA or Project BudBurst. Focusing on the watershed of the Potomac River in southern Maryland and Washington, D.C., this project considers the environmental implications of economic policy. Participants actively clean up the river banks, and provide assistance to businesses creating “Trash-Free Facilities” through software and a free online greenhouse gas reduction calculator. The initiative reminds consumers that plastic bags make up a huge portion of the trash along the Potomac. The Trash Free Potomac Watershed Initiative supports a fee on single-use plastic bags, which encourages the use of recyclable bags.

    The Cornell Lab of Ornithology plays host to many citizen-science programs. It has a variety of bird programs, including NestWatch, which teaches people how to monitor nests and collect breeding information to track reproduction among North American birds. NestCams is a series of online webcams that observe the nesting behavior of breeding birds.

    Zooniverse is an online aggregator that supports a wide variety of citizen scientists. Unlike natural history projects, which typically take volunteers outdoors, Zooniverse exists as an online community. With Zooniverse’s Galaxy Zoo, Moon Zoo, and Solar Stormwatch projects, armchair astronauts virtually explore distant galaxies, study the surface of the Moon, and investigate solar explosions—all just a click away on the computer.

    Citizen science also includes humanities projects. Ancient Lives provides more than 100,000 fragments of ancient Egyptian papyrus. Using an online tool, citizen scientists can help transcribe and catalog these fragments of Greek texts—including the works of Sophocles and Sappho.

    History, too, has a citizen-science component. Old Weather is a project that aims to catalog the climate-related entries of nearly 300 Royal Navy ships of the World War I era. These historical data help climatologists improve their models. The ships’ logs also include political and social information, which are invaluable to historians.

    citizen science
    These citizen scientists are all wet.

    Dive In!
    Many citizen-science projects have a national or local focus. However, the United Nations and other international organizations have joined with Earthdive to provide the Global Dive Log. Scuba divers and snorkelers record sightings of key indicator species and human-induced pressures in the worlds oceans.

    One of the first citizen-science projects to harness the power of the Internet was SETI@home, a scientific experiment that uses Internet-connected computers in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). SETI@home was made public in 1999, and you can still take part in the search by joining the project and downloading free software.

    Playing an online game may help you become a citizen scientist. Eyewire is a game that helps researchers understand how vision and our brains visual processes work.

    Making Urban Sense of L.A.
    Urban Sensing is a spectrum of citizen-science projects that relies on Los Angeles-based participants using GPS, mobile, and Web technology. Citizen scientists study, reflect on, and share their experiences to help bikers find good routes and collect data to improve them, analyze and monitor food choices, and map the cultural identities of Los Angeles neighborhoods. One of the most innovative projects of Urban Sensing is PEIR, the Personal Environmental Impact Report, a new kind of online tool that allows you to use your mobile phone to explore and share how you impact the environment and how the environment impacts you.

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    accelerate Verb

    to increase speed or velocity.

    aggregate Noun

    sand, gravel, or crushed rock excavated from a quarry.

    air quality Noun

    measurement of pollutants and other harmful materials in the air.

    amateur Adjective

    person who studies and works at an activity or interest without financial benefit or being formally trained in it.

    ancient Adjective

    very old.

    astronaut Noun

    person who takes part in space flights.

    astronomy Noun

    the study of space beyond Earth's atmosphere.

    bioblitz Noun

    a field study in which groups of scientists and citizens study and inventory all the different kinds of living organisms within a given area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: bioblitz
    birder Noun

    person who observes and identifies birds. Also called a bird-watcher.

    botanist Noun

    person who studies plants.

    breed Verb

    to produce offspring.

    bryophyte Noun

    type of plant (non-vascular) that includes mosses and liverworts.

    catalog Verb

    to list or order by type.

    census Noun

    program of a nation, state, or other region that counts the population and usually gives its characteristics, such as age and gender.

    Encyclopedic Entry: census
    citizen science Noun

    science project or program where volunteers who are not scientists conduct surveys, take measurements, or record observations.

    Encyclopedic Entry: citizen science
    climate Noun

    all weather conditions for a given location over a period of time.

    Encyclopedic Entry: climate
    climate change Noun

    gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet.

    Encyclopedic Entry: climate change
    component Noun


    conservation Noun

    management of a natural resource to prevent exploitation, destruction, or neglect.

    Encyclopedic Entry: conservation
    consumer Noun

    person who uses a good or service.

    crowdsourcing Noun

    technique that enlists the public to assist with a specialized task.

    data Plural Noun

    (singular: datum) information collected during a scientific study.

    data visualization Noun

    visual representation of information, including maps, graphics, tables, and charts.

    digital Adjective

    having to do with numbers (or digits), often in a format used by computers.

    diversity Noun


    ecologist Noun

    scientist who studies the relationships between organisms and their environments.

    economic Adjective

    having to do with money.

    establish Verb

    to form or officially organize.

    expertise Noun

    outstanding or expert knowledge about a specific subject.

    fee Noun

    price or cost.

    field work Noun

    scientific studies done outside of a lab, classroom, or office.

    Encyclopedic Entry: field work
    funding Noun

    money or finances.

    fungus Noun

    (plural: fungi) type of organism that survives by decomposing and absorbing the material in which it grows.

    galaxy Noun

    collection of stars, planets, gases, and other celestial bodies bound together by gravity.

    gardener Noun

    person who organizes, cultivates, and tends to a garden.

    generate Verb

    to create or begin.

    government Noun

    system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit.

    GPS receiver Noun

    device that gets radio signals from satellites in orbit above Earth in order to calculate a precise location.

    greenhouse gas Noun

    gas in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and ozone, that absorbs solar heat reflected by the surface of the Earth, warming the atmosphere.

    humanity Noun

    condition of being human, including the study of art, literature, philosophy, and the sciences.

    initiative Noun

    first step or move in a plan.

    invertebrate Noun

    animal without a spine.

    leverage Verb

    to use, especially to use an existing asset.

    migration Noun

    movement of a group of people or animals from one place to another.

    monitor Verb

    to observe and record behavior or data.

    Moon Noun

    Earth's only natural satellite.

    National Audubon Society Noun

    conservation organization with a special focus on birds.

    National Park Service Noun

    U.S. federal agency with the mission of caring "for special places saved by the American people so that all may experience our heritage."

    natural history Noun study and description of living things, especially their origins, evolution, and relationships to one another. Natural history includes the sciences of zoology, biology, botany, geology, mineralogy, paleontology, and many other fields.
    naturalist Noun

    person who studies the natural history or natural development of organisms and the environment.

    ornithology Noun

    study of the biology and behavior of birds.

    papyrus Noun

    ancient writing material, similar to paper, made from the papyrus plant.

    peer Noun

    colleague, coworker, or equal.

    phenology Noun

    study of cyclical biological events, such as animal migration or the flowering of plants.

    policy Noun

    set of actions or rules.

    population Noun

    total number of people or organisms in a particular area.

    public Noun

    people of a community.

    research Noun

    scientific observations and investigation into a subject, usually following the scientific method: observation, hypothesis, prediction, experimentation, analysis, and conclusion.

    Royal Navy Noun

    armed service branch of the United Kingdom.

    Sappho Noun

    (~630-612 BCE) Greek poet.

    smartphone Noun

    mobile telephone with additional features, such as a web browser or music playing device.

    sophisticated Adjective

    knowledgeable or complex.

    Sophocles Noun

    (~495-406 BCE) Greek playwright and poet.

    technology Noun

    the science of using tools and complex machines to make human life easier or more profitable.

    temperature Noun

    degree of hotness or coldness measured by a thermometer with a numerical scale.

    Encyclopedic Entry: temperature
    transcribe Verb

    to make a written or electronic recording of something.

    watershed Noun

    entire river system or an area drained by a river and its tributaries.

    Encyclopedic Entry: watershed
    weatherbug Noun

    nickname for a person who observes, measures, and records weather phenomena.

    wetland Noun

    area of land covered by shallow water or saturated by water.

    Encyclopedic Entry: wetland
    World War I Noun

    (1914-1918) armed conflict between the Allies (led by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) and the Central Powers (led by Germany and Austria-Hungary). Also called the Great War.

    zoology Noun

    the study of animals.