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Encyclopedic Entries


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Wildlife Conservation

Wildlife conservation aims to protect plant and animal species as the human population encroaches on their resources.


Oceanography applies chemistry, geology, meteorology, biology, and other branches of science to the study of the ocean. It is especially important tod...

Natural Selection

Natural selection is the process through which species adapt to their environments. It is the engine that drives evolution.

Renewable Resources

Renewable resources are an energy source that cannot be depleted and are able to supply a continuous source of clean energy.


Petroleum, or crude oil, is a fossil fuel and nonrenewable source of energy.


Weathering describes the breaking down or dissolving of rocks and minerals on the surface of the Earth. Water, ice, acids, salts, plants, animals, and...


Erosion is the geological process in which earthen materials are worn away and transported by natural forces such as wind or water.

All About Climate

Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area.


Earth is the planet we live on, the third of eight planets in our solar system and the only known place in the universe to support life.


 A floodplain is a generally flat area of land next to a river or stream. 


Earth’s core is the very hot, very dense center of our planet.

seafloor spreading

Seafloor spreading is a geologic process in which tectonic plates—large slabs of Earth's lithosphere—split apart from each other.


A rain forest is an area of tall trees and a high amount of rainfall.


A barometer is a tool used to measure atmospheric pressure, also called barometric pressure


Nanotechnology is the study and manipulation of individual atoms and molecules.


A landslide is the movement of rock, earth, or debris down a sloped section of land.


A village is a small settlement usually found in a rural setting.


A waterfall is a steep descent of a river or other body of water over a rocky ledge.


Development is the process of growth, or changing from one condition to another. In economics, development is change from a traditional economy to one...

geothermal energy

Geothermal energy is heat that is generated within the Earth. It is a renewable resource that can be harvested for human use.


The sun is an ordinary star, one of about 100 billion in our galaxy, the Milky Way. The sun has extremely important influences on our planet: It drive...


An estuary is an area where a freshwater river or stream meets the ocean. When freshwater and seawater combine, the water becomes brackish, or slightl...

ice cap

An ice cap is a thick layer of ice and snow that covers large areas of land. You’ll usually find ice caps in the North and South Poles of the Ea...

ice sheet

An ice sheet is a type of glacier that covers a very large area

Natural Gas

Encyclopedic entry. Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed from the remains of plants and animals. Other fossil fuels include oil and coal.