EARLY WORK

Jerry grew up on a farm in the high plains of Colorado—“the home of the Dust Bowl,” he says.

Although he was familiar with agriculture and crops such as wheat and sorghum, it wasn’t until Jerry was in his late twenties that he realized “soil science” was an actual field of study.

He was pursuing his undergraduate degree in philosophy when he became an intern at the Land Institute. Learning about perennials and their possible agricultural and ecological uses “was a total game-changer for me,” Jerry says. “It was an epiphany.”

It was a completely different way of thinking about science and ecology, Jerry says. “The way we think about the science of agriculture—crop rotation, fertilizer, pesticides—that’s the software. The plants, they’re the hardware. We’re usually thinking of developing new software for old hardware. We’re trying to put Photoshop on a Commodore 64! By developing and expanding use of perennials, we could design new hardware.”

MOST EXCITING PART OF YOUR WORK

“Working in native grasslands. I work with specialists who study insects, microbial diversity, chemistry. . . . My wife studies nematode populations. Working from such different perspectives, I am constantly reminded how well the [native grass] ecosystem works—how elegant, how beautiful.”

MOST DEMANDING PART OF YOUR WORK

“Sitting at a desk, writing a paper.”

Jerry says the work of publishing can be tiring. It often takes a year to have a scientific article published in a magazine like Science. Even top scientists like Jerry must revise their work. “Everyone gets rejected,” he says. Scientists submit their article, revise it, submit it again, and make new revisions. The cycle repeats until the paper is published.

Although he usually prefers to be in the field, studying soil and plants, Jerry realizes that publishing and communicating with other scientists is very important to his field of study. “You gotta do it,” he says.

HOW DO YOU DEFINE GEOGRAPHY?

“The study of the Earth.”

GEO-CONNECTION

Agriculture has been identified as one of the greatest manmade threats to ecosystems on Earth, and Jerry believes annual plants like rice, wheat, and corn are a big part of the problem. “Annual plants, which die every year, have very shallow root systems. Annuals usually need more irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizer, because their root systems do not retain nutrients very well,” he explains.

Perennial plants like sunflowers, on the other hand, bloom every year without having to be replanted. Jerry explains: “Perennial plants have incredibly deep root systems. They can extend dozens of feet into the soil. This anchors the soil, limiting erosion and runoff. It also allows perennial plants to survive periods of little precipitation. Their roots extend so far, they can access water that plants with shorter root systems simply cannot.

“When you apply fertilizer or pesticides on an annual plant, you always lose it. It seeps into the soil, into the groundwater. It washes away as runoff, which is pollution for rivers. . . . With perennials, what you put in [water, nutrients], stays in.

“Perennials increase water infiltration, which means they retain water in the soil and texture of the plant. They also have decreased transpiration, meaning that perennial plants are less likely to lose water vapor into the atmosphere. The long root systems of perennial plants, as well as their lower rate of transpiration, mean that perennial crops do not need to be irrigated as often as annuals.”

With perennials, “Weeds are just not a problem,” says Jerry.

Jerry and his colleagues are working to develop perennial versions of such familiar crops as rice, wheat, and sorghum. Switchgrass, a perennial grass, is one of the plants considered for biofuel, an alternative to fossil fuel.

Plant breeders are working to show “proof of concept,” or proof that perennial crops can be reliable and profitable. “The benchmark is going to be a yield of one ton per hectare, with little to no environmental damage,” said Jerry.

SO, YOU WANT TO BE A . . . SOIL SCIENTIST

“Remember to study entire systems. . . . Sometimes soil scientists limit themselves to just one area of study: the chemistry of the soil, or the biology, or the ecology. Try to see the whole picture.”

GET INVOLVED

“Garden! Understand how plants converting sunlight, water, and oxygen into simple sugars drives almost everything on the planet! It’s such an unbelievable process, and it’s so poorly understood even by scientists.”

Soil Scientist: Jerry Glover
Jerry Glover is an agroecologist.
Noun

the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).

agroecologist
Noun

person who studies the role of agriculture in the environment.

alfalfa
Noun

legume that is often used as feed for livestock.

annual
Adjective

yearly.

benchmark
Noun

standard of achievement against which others are measured.

biofuel
Noun

energy source derived directly from organic matter, such as plants.

cereal
Noun

type of grain, including wheat.

consensus
Noun

agreement.

crop researcher
Noun

person who studies the characteristics and behaviors of different agricultural crops over different time periods, places, and climates.

crop rotation
Noun

the system of changing the type of crop in a field over time, mainly to preserve the productivity of the soil.

crop yield
Noun

material produced by a farmer or farm, usually measured in weight per hectare.

Dust Bowl
Noun

(1930-1940) term for the Great Plains of the U.S. and Canada when severe dust storms forced thousands of people off their farms.

Noun

branch of biology that studies the relationship between living organisms and their environment.

Noun

community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.

epiphany
Noun

sudden revelation or insight.

Noun

act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice.

farmer
Noun

person who cultivates land and raises crops.

fertilizer
Noun

nutrient-rich chemical substance (natural or manmade) applied to soil to encourage plant growth.

game-changer
Noun

event that changes the outlook or perspective of a person or group of people about a topic.

genetically modified organism (GMO)
Noun

living thing whose genes (DNA) have been altered for a specific purpose.

genome
Noun

set of genes, or chromosomes, that hold all the inherited characteristics of an organism.

Noun

any system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on the Earth's surface.

grassland
Noun

ecosystem with large, flat areas of grasses.

Green Revolution
Noun

the increase in food production due to improved agricultural technology.

Noun

water found in an aquifer.

hardware
Noun

computer machinery.

hay
Noun

fresh or dry grass used to feed livestock.

hectare
Noun

unit of measure equal to 2.47 acres, or 10,000 square meters.

Human Genome Project
Noun

international project to study human DNA, and determine the sequences of the three billion base pairs that make up the human genome.

hybrid
Noun

the end result of two different sources of input.

intern
Noun

person who works or volunteers at a business in order to learn and gain experience.

Noun

watering land, usually for agriculture, by artificial means.

Land Institute
Noun

organization working to develop an ecologically stable agricultural system with a grain yield comparable to that from annual crops.

livestock
noun, plural noun

animals raised for sale and profit.

maize
Noun

corn.

microbial
Adjective

having to do with very small organisms.

narrative
Noun

story or telling of events.

nematode
Noun

microscopic, worm-like animal.

Noun

substance an organism needs for energy, growth, and life.

nutrient rate trial
Noun

experiment that tracks the way different soils and plants absorb and use different nutrients.

perennial
Adjective

continual, perpetual.

pesticide
Noun

natural or manufactured substance used to kill organisms that threaten agriculture or are undesirable. Pesticides can be fungicides (which kill harmful fungi), insecticides (which kill harmful insects), herbicides (which kill harmful plants), or rodenticides (which kill harmful rodents.)

philosophy
Noun

the study of the basic principles of knowledge.

Noun

flat, smooth area at a low elevation.

Plains Indian
Noun

one of many people and cultures native to the Great Plains in North America.

plant breeder
Noun

person who studies the inherited characteristics of plants, and works to combine and reproduce them using hybrids and genetic engineering.

Noun

all forms in which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere.

rice
Noun

grass cultivated for its seeds.

root system
Noun

all of a plant's roots.

Noun

overflow of fluid from a farm or industrial factory.

seep
Verb

to slowly flow through a border.

software
Noun

electronic programs of code that tell computers what to do.

soil
Noun

top layer of the Earth's surface where plants can grow.

sorghum
Noun

type of grain.

switchgrass
Noun

tall grass native to North America.

technology
Noun

the science of using tools and complex machines to make human life easier or more profitable.

transgenic
Adjective

organism that contains genetic material from another species.

transpiration
Noun

evaporation of water from plants.

undergrad
Noun

undergraduate. college student who has not graduated, as oppossed to a graduate student pursuing a master's or doctoral degree.

vapor
Noun

visible liquid suspended in the air, such as fog.

water infiltration
Noun

process by which water on the ground surface or atmosphere enters the soil.

weed
Noun

unwanted plant.

wheat
Noun

most widely grown cereal in the world.