This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. Content Created by The Concord Consortium

  • Tips & Modifications


    The activity is part of a sequence of activities in the Is There Life In Space? lesson. The activities work best if used in sequence.


    This activity may be used individually or in groups of two or three students. It may also be modified for a whole-class format. If using as a whole-class activity, use an LCD projector or interactive whiteboard to project the activity. Turn embedded questions into class discussions. Uncertainty items allow for classroom debates over the evidence.


    You can save student data for grading online by registering your class for free at the High-Adventure Science portal page.

    1. Activate students' prior knowledge about Newton's Third Law of Motion.

    Tell students that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Ask:

    • Imagine you have a dog on a leash. When the dog pulls on the leash, what do you feel? (When the dog pulls on the leash, you feel a pull towards the dog.)
    • What does the dog feel? (The dog feels an equal force pulling it back towards you. The force is equal to and opposite of the force that you feel in the leash.)


    Explain to students that scientists use this concept to find planets orbiting around stars. Tell students that the gravitational pull of planets can move their stars as they orbit. 


    2. Discuss the role of uncertainty in the scientific process.

    Introduce students to the concept of uncertainty in the scientific process. Explain that science is a process of learning how the world works and that scientists do not know the “right” answers when they start to investigate a question. Tell students that they can see examples of scientists' uncertainty in determining whether or not the data collected from telescopes show the presence of planets.


    Show the Kepler Planet Candidates graph from the NASA Exoplanet Archive. Tell students that the red dots indicate potential planets the Kepler telescope has detected and the blue dots indicate the planets the Kepler telescope detected and have been confirmed by other means. Ask:

    • Why do you think there are more red dots than blue dots (more potential planets than confirmed planets)? (The telescope may detect planets that are not there. The technology may not be good enough to tell the difference between a planet and some other phenomenon.)
    • Why do scientists need to independently confirm the presence of planets? (Scientists need to check the accuracy of the telescope's predictions of a planet. If the telescope shows a planet and the scientists confirm that it is a planet, then the scientists can spend more time trying to learn about the planet.)


    Let students know that they will be asked questions about the certainty of their predictions and that they should think about what scientific and model-based data are available as they assess their certainty with their answers. Encourage students to discuss the scientific evidence with each other to better assess their level of certainty with their predictions.


    3. Introduce and discuss the use of computational models. Explain the concept of computational models, and give students an example of a computational model that they may have seen, such as forecasting the weather. Project the NOAA Weather Forecast Model, which provides a good example of a computational model. Tell students that scientists use planetary models to predict the motion and apparent brightness of stars if planets are present and to predict the habitability of planets. Explain that there are many different types of models and that they will be using simple models of planetary motion in this activity.


    4. Have students launch the Moving Stars and Their Planets interactive .

    Provide students with the link to the Moving Stars and Their Planets interactive. Divide students into groups of two or three, with two being the ideal grouping to allow students to share computer work stations. Tell students they will be working through a series of pages of data with questions related to the data. Ask students to work through the activity in their groups, discussing and responding to questions as they go.


    NOTE: You can access the Answer Key for students' questions—and save students' data for online grading—through a free registration on the High-Adventure Science portal page.


    Tell students this is Activity 2 in the Is There Life in Space? lesson.


    5. Discuss the issues.

    After students have completed the activity, bring the groups back together and lead them in a discussion focusing on these questions:

    • What is the Doppler effect? (The Doppler effect is the apparent change in wavelength as an object moves. As the object moves closer, the wavelength decreases, and as the object moves away, the wavelength increases.)
    • How do scientists use the Doppler effect to find planets around a star? (Planets pull on their stars as they orbit, thus moving the star. If the star is in the same plane as the observer, the observer can see that the light coming from the star appears to become redder as the star moves away and bluer as the star moves closer. The changing wavelengths indicate that the star is moving. If this movement is regular, it is likely that a planet is causing the star to move.)

    Informal Assessment

    1. Check students' comprehension by asking students the following questions:

    • How are planets found via the wobble method?
    • How does a planet's mass affect its star's wobble?
    • How does the angle of orbit affect whether a planet will be detected?

    2. Use the answer key to check students' answers on embedded assessments.

  • Subjects & Disciplines

    • Space sciences
  • Science
    • Earth science