• Tips & Modifications

    Tip Teacher Tip

    In Step 2, if there are measures remaining after you have assigned two to each group, assign them to groups that need an additional challenge or to groups who finish their consequences webs first.

    1. Have students review documents from previous activities to identify potential consequences to stakeholders of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act.

    Return students’ completed Stakeholder Tables, Possible Measures Tables, Geographic and Political Considerations worksheets, and both annotated briefings. Briefly remind students of what each document includes. Have students work in the same small groups from the previous activities to review these documents and highlight any information relating to consequences to stakeholders of the measures under consideration for inclusion in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act.

    2. Have each group create a consequences web for two of the measures identified on the Possible Measures Table.

    Model how to make a consequences web by drawing a square in the middle of the board and writing “Measure 1” in the square. Then draw a circle and connect it to the square with a line. In the circle write “direct consequence 1.” Draw another circle and line in the same way and label the second circle “direct consequence 2.” Explain that students should draw as many circles as they need to list all the direct consequences of Ford’s decision. Then model how to illustrate indirect consequences. Draw a line from one of the circles to a new circle. In the new circle write “indirect consequence.”  Assign each group two of the measures listed on the Possible Measures Table. Have students work with their groups to draw a consequences web for each measure based on what they have learned in previous lessons and the cascading consequences they think the decision to include that measure would create. Give students time to briefly review the consequences webs created by other groups.

    3. Have groups explore the effects of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act on stakeholders.

    Direct students to the Stakeholder Tables they began in Activity 1. Model how to use the table by filling in the first row with the class. Then have groups complete the rest of the table. Students should reference the briefings and other handouts from previous activities to help them complete the chart. Be sure students understand that they are looking at the effects of the act as a whole, not just individual measures.

    4. Have groups compare their completed tables to those of the other groups.

    Make enough copies of each group’s Stakeholder Table for each group to have one full set. Distribute the copies to groups along with the Stakeholder Discussion Prompts handout, and ask students to take a few minutes to compare other groups’ tables to their own. Ask students to discuss the questions from Part 1 of the handout within their group. Then ask groups to look more closely at a table that differs significantly from theirs. Have them discuss the questions from Part 2 of the handout within their group. Allow time for groups to share some of their insights with the class. Collect students’ Stakeholder Table, Possible Measures Table, Political and Geographic Considerations worksheet, and both annotated briefings for use in the final activity of this lesson.

    Informal Assessment

    Use students’ consequences webs and stakeholder tables as a formative assessment. Look for evidence that students understand how various measures could affect stakeholders.

  • Subjects & Disciplines

    • Geography
    • Language Arts
      • Reading
    • Social Studies
      • United States government
      • United States history

    Learning Objectives

    Students will:

    • identify and analyze possible consequences to stakeholders of measures considered for the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975

    Teaching Approach

    • Constructivist

    Teaching Methods

    • Cooperative learning
    • Discussions
    • Information organization
    • Reading

    Skills Summary

    This activity targets the following skills:

    Connections to National Standards, Principles, and Practices

    IRA/NCTE Standards for the English Language Arts

    • Standard 1:  Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.

    National Council for Social Studies Curriculum Standards

    • Theme 2:  Time, Continuity, and Change

    National Geography Standards

    • Standard 11:  The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface
    • Standard 13:  How the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth's surface
    • Standard 17:  How to apply geography to interpret the past
    • Standard 4:  The physical and human characteristics of places

    National Standards for History

    Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy

    • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.10:  By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.
    • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.10 :  By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

    The College, Career & Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards

    • D2.Civ.13.9-12:  Evaluate public policies in terms of intended and unintended outcomes, and related consequences
    • D2.Eco.1.9-12:  Analyze how incentives influence choices that may result in policies with a range of costs and benefits for different groups.
    • D2.Eco.8.9-12:  Describe the possible consequences, both intended and unintended, of government policies to improve market outcomes.
    • D2.His.1.9-12:  Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time and place as well as broader historical contexts
    • D2.His.4.9-12.:  Analyze complex and interacting factors that influenced the perspectives of people during different historical eras.
  • What You’ll Need

    Materials You Provide

    • Highlighters
    • Paper
    • Pens

    Physical Space

    • Classroom


    • Large-group instruction
  • Background Information

    Prior Knowledge

    • None

    Recommended Prior Activities

    • None


    Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    intended consequences Noun

    results of an action or situation that are deliberately brought about and/or anticipated.

    stakeholder Noun

    person or organization that has an interest or investment in a place, situation or company.

    unintended consequences Noun

    results of an action or situation that are not deliberately brought about and/or anticipated.